Biological Invasions (2010) 12, 2179-2206

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Shan-Huah Wu, Hao-Ting Sun, Yung-Ching Teng, Marcel Rejmánek, Shu-Miaw Chaw, T.-Y. Aleck Yang and Chang-Fu Hsieh (2010)
Patterns of plant invasions in China: Taxonomic, biogeographic, climatic approaches and anthropogenic effects
Biological Invasions 12 (7), 2179-2206
Abstract: This study was aimed to determine the patterns as well as the effects of biological, anthropogenic, and climatic factors on plant invasions in China. About 270 volumes of national and regional floras were employed to compile a naturalized flora of China. Habit, life form, origin, distribution, and uses of naturalized plants were also analyzed to determine patterns on invasion. Correlations between biological, anthropogenic and climatic parameters were estimated at province and regional scales. Naturalized species represent 1% of the flora of China. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae are the dominant families, but Euphorbiaceae and Cactaceae have the largest ratios of naturalized species to their global numbers. Oenothera, Euphorbia, and Crotalaria were the dominant genera. Around 50% of exotic species were introduced intentionally for medicinal purposes. Most of the naturalized species originated in tropical America, followed by Asia and Europe. Number of naturalized species was significantly correlated to the number of native species/log area. The intensity of plant invasion showed a pattern along climate zones from mesic to xeric, declining with decreasing temperature and precipitation across the nation. Anthropogenic factor, such as distance of transportation, was significantly correlated to plant invasions at a regional scale. Although anthropogenic factors were largely responsible for creating opportunities for exotic species to spread and establish, the local biodiversity and climate factors were the major factors shaping the pattern of plant invasions in China. The warm regions, which are the hot spots of local biodiversity, and relatively developed areas of China, furthermore, require immediate attentions.
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Database assignments for author(s): Marcel Rejmánek

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
environment - cropping system/rotation
surveys/sampling/distribution


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Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Solanum sisymbriifolium (weed)
Digitaria sanguinalis (weed)
Avena fatua (weed)
Centaurea diffusa (weed)
Isatis tinctoria (weed)
Setaria pallide-fusca (weed)
Amaranthus retroflexus (weed)
Rumex crispus (weed)
Veronica persica (weed)
Galinsoga quadriradiata (weed)
Galinsoga parviflora (weed)
Ranunculus arvensis (weed)
Anthemis arvensis (weed)
Polygonum aviculare (weed) China (south)
Polygonum aviculare (weed) China (NE)
Polygonum aviculare (weed) China (NW)
Senecio vulgaris (weed)
Chromolaena odorata (weed)
Sisymbrium officinale (weed)
Daucus carota (weed)
Setaria viridis (weed) China (south)
Setaria viridis (weed) China (NE)
Setaria viridis (weed) China (NW)
Ageratum conyzoides (weed)
Bidens pilosa (weed)
Mikania micrantha (weed)
Parthenium hysterophorus (weed)
Euphorbia heterophylla (weed)
Cenchrus echinatus (weed)
Lantana camara (weed)
Sorghum halepense (weed)
Argemone mexicana (weed)
Physalis angulata (weed)
Ulex europaeus (weed)
Datura stramonium (weed) China (south)
Datura stramonium (weed) China (NE)
Datura stramonium (weed) China (NW)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (weed) China (south)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (weed) China (NE)
Ambrosia artemisiifolia (weed) China (NW)
Phalaris minor (weed)
Erigeron canadensis (weed) China (south)
Erigeron canadensis (weed) China (NE)
Erigeron canadensis (weed) China (NW)
Erodium cicutarium (weed)
Azolla filiculoides (weed)
Reseda lutea (weed)
Melilotus officinalis (weed) China (south)
Melilotus officinalis (weed) China (NE)
Melilotus officinalis (weed) China (NW)
Mimosa pigra (weed)
Setaria pumila (weed) China (south)
Setaria pumila (weed) China (NE)
Setaria pumila (weed) China (NW)
Jacquemontia tamnifolia (weed)
Rumex acetosella (weed)
Melilotus indicus (weed)
Vicia sativa (weed) China (south)
Vicia sativa (weed) China (NE)
Vicia sativa (weed) China (NW)
Cichorium intybus (weed)
Eichhornia crassipes (weed) China (south)
Eichhornia crassipes (weed) China (NE)
Eichhornia crassipes (weed) China (NW)
Sonchus oleraceus (weed)
Phalaris paradoxa (weed)
Hibiscus trionum (weed) China (south)
Hibiscus trionum (weed) China (NE)
Hibiscus trionum (weed) China (NW)
Amaranthus viridis (weed)
Celosia argentea (weed) China (south)
Celosia argentea (weed) China (NE)
Celosia argentea (weed) China (NW)
Achillea millefolium (weed)
Plantago lanceolata (weed)
Tithonia diversifolia (weed)
Senna occidentalis (weed)
Dactylis glomerata (weed)
Phleum pratense (weed)
Ipomoea purpurea (weed) China (south)
Ipomoea purpurea (weed) China (NE)
Ipomoea purpurea (weed) China (NW)
Ageratina adenophora (weed)
Phalaris arundinacea (weed)
Chenopodium ambrosioides (weed)
Vicia hirsuta (weed)
Brassica nigra (weed)
Lolium perenne multiflorum (weed)
Lepidium virginicum (weed)
Lepidium didymus (weed)
Ambrosia trifida (weed)
Amaranthus albus (weed) China (south)
Amaranthus albus (weed) China (NE)
Amaranthus albus (weed) China (NW)
Amaranthus lividus (weed)
Richardia scabra (weed)
Euphorbia peplus (weed)
Veronica arvensis (weed)
Amaranthus blitoides (weed)
Heliotropium europaeum (weed)
Erigeron annuus (weed)
Oenothera biennis (weed)
Alternanthera philoxeroides (weed)
Paspalum notatum (weed)
Spartina anglica (weed)
Amaranthus spinosus (weed)
Phytolacca americana (weed)
Erigeron bonariensis (weed)
Tridax procumbens (weed)
Geranium carolinianum (weed)
Oenothera laciniata (weed)
Arachis hypogaea (weed)
Medicago lupulina (weed) China (south)
Medicago lupulina (weed) China (NE)
Medicago lupulina (weed) China (NW)
Lolium temulentum (weed)
Brassica juncea (weed)
Acacia farnesiana (weed)
Agave americana (weed)
Alternanthera sessilis (weed) China (south)
Alternanthera sessilis (weed) China (NE)
Alternanthera sessilis (weed) China (NW)
Bidens alba (weed)
Cardiospermum halicacabum (weed)
Crassocephalum crepidioides (weed)
Crotalaria pallida (weed)
Cuphea carthagenensis (weed)
Indigofera suffruticosa (weed)
Jatropha gossypiifolia (weed)
Mimosa pudica (weed)
Paspalum conjugatum (weed)
Paspalum dilatatum (weed)
Passiflora foetida (weed)
Pennisetum polystachion (weed)
Pennisetum purpureum (weed)
Phyllanthus amarus (weed) China (south)
Phyllanthus amarus (weed) China (NE)
Phyllanthus amarus (weed) China (NW)
Pseudelephantopus spicatus (weed)
Psidium guajava (weed)
Ricinus communis (weed) China (south)
Ricinus communis (weed) China (NE)
Ricinus communis (weed) China (NW)
Senna tora (weed)
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (weed)
Synedrella nodiflora (weed)
Asclepias curassavica (weed)
Salvia coccinea (weed)
Leucaena leucocephala (weed)
Malvastrum coromandelianum (weed)
Peperomia pellucida (weed)
Cyclospermum leptophyllum (weed)
Ageratum houstonianum (weed) China (south)
Ageratum houstonianum (weed) China (NE)
Ageratum houstonianum (weed) China (NW)
Bidens frondosa (weed)
Medicago polymorpha (weed)
Mimosa diplotricha (weed)
Cannabis sativa (weed)
Limnocharis flava (weed)
Euphorbia helioscopia (weed)
Anthemis cotula (weed)
Nicandra physalodes (weed) China (south)
Nicandra physalodes (weed) China (NE)
Nicandra physalodes (weed) China (NW)
Helianthus tuberosus (weed)
Spartina alterniflora (weed)
Solidago canadensis (weed)
Ipomoea indica (weed)
Medicago sativa (weed) China (south)
Medicago sativa (weed) China (NE)
Medicago sativa (weed) China (NW)
Linum usitatissimum (weed)
Hyoscyamus niger (weed)
Phyla nodiflora (weed)
Amorpha fruticosa (weed)
Lepidium densiflorum (weed)
Setaria palmifolia (weed)
Oxalis pes-caprae (weed)
Dolichandra unguis-cati (weed)
Chloris virgata (weed)
Centrosema pubescens (weed)
Arenaria serpyllifolia (weed)
Phyllanthus niruri (weed) China (south)
Phyllanthus niruri (weed) China (NE)
Phyllanthus niruri (weed) China (NW)
Bromus catharticus (weed)
Triodanis biflora (weed)
Trifolium repens (weed) China (south)
Trifolium repens (weed) China (NE)
Trifolium repens (weed) China (NW)
Veronica peregrina (weed)
Senna alata (weed)
Ipomoea triloba (weed)
Acacia dealbata (weed)
Alternanthera pungens (weed) China (south)
Alternanthera pungens (weed) China (NE)
Alternanthera pungens (weed) China (NW)
Amaranthus hypochondriacus (weed)
Cyclachaena xanthifolia (weed) China (south)
Cyclachaena xanthifolia (weed) China (NE)
Cyclachaena xanthifolia (weed) China (NW)
Caladium bicolor (weed)
Cynosurus cristatus (weed)
Corchorus olitorius (weed)
Malvastrum americanum (weed)
Vicia villosa (weed)
Opuntia ficus-indica (weed)
Gomphrena celosioides (weed)
Erigeron floribundus (weed)
Berberis thunbergii (weed)
Amaranthus caudatus (weed)
Anredera cordifolia (weed)
Foeniculum vulgare (weed)
Praxelis clematidea (weed) China (south)
Praxelis clematidea (weed) China (NE)
Praxelis clematidea (weed) China (NW)
Acanthospermum australe (weed)
Melinis repens (weed)
Pereskia aculeata (weed)
Coreopsis grandiflora (weed) China (south)
Coreopsis grandiflora (weed) China (NE)
Coreopsis grandiflora (weed) China (NW)
Crotalaria incana (weed)
Ipomoea cairica (weed)
Ipomoea nil (weed)
Pilea microphylla (weed)
Hyptis suaveolens (weed)
Herissantia crispa (weed)
Talinum paniculatum (weed) China (south)
Talinum paniculatum (weed) China (NE)
Talinum paniculatum (weed) China (NW)
Raphanus sativus (weed)