Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington (2005) 107, 123-158

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Douglass R. Miller, Gary L. Miller, Greg S. Hodges and John A. Davidson (2005)
Introduced scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the United States and their impact on U.S. Agriculture
Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington 107 (1), 123-158
Abstract: We provide information on 255 species of scale insects that are considered adventive or introduced in the United States. Included for each species, where applicable, is reference to: the state and earliest collection date in which the invader was first discovered; whether it is currently established in the United States; its pest status in the United States along with a validation citation; its principal hosts; and its zoogeographical region of origin. Information is provided about trends of pest introductions and on native scale-insect pests in the United States.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Database assignments for author(s): Gregory S. Hodges

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
new introduction of pest

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Unaspis euonymi U.S.A. (NE)
Planococcus citri U.S.A. (SE)
Phoenicococcus marlatti U.S.A. (SW)
Protopulvinaria pyriformis U.S.A. (SE)
Aonidiella aurantii Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SW)
Coccus hesperidum U.S.A. (SW)
Pseudococcus calceolariae Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SW)
Pseudococcus longispinus U.S.A. (NE)
Unaspis citri Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (mid S)
Coccus pseudomagnoliarum Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SW)
Saissetia oleae U.S.A. (SW)
Diaspidiotus perniciosus U.S.A. (SW)
Diaspidiotus ostreaeformis U.S.A. (NE)
Aspidiotus nerii U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi U.S.A. (SE)
Epidiaspis leperii U.S.A. (SW)
Lepidosaphes ulmi U.S.A. (NE)
Lepidosaphes beckii U.S.A. (SE)
Ceroplastes rusci Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Parthenolecanium corni U.S.A. (mid S)
Icerya purchasi U.S.A. (SW)
Carulaspis juniperi Juniper (Juniperus) U.S.A. (NE)
Eulecanium cerasorum U.S.A. (SW)
Ferrisia virgata U.S.A. (SW)
Maconellicoccus hirsutus U.S.A. (SW)
Planococcus kraunhiae U.S.A. (SW)
Phenacoccus parvus U.S.A. (SE)
Saccharicoccus sacchari Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) U.S.A. (SE)
Coccus viridis U.S.A. (SE)
Aspidiotus destructor
Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Parlatoria blanchardi
Lepidosaphes gloverii Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Dysmicoccus boninsis Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) U.S.A. (SE)
Dysmicoccus brevipes U.S.A. (SE)
Saissetia coffeae U.S.A. (SW)
Ceroplastes rubens U.S.A. (SE)
Ceroplastes rubens Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Aonidiella orientalis U.S.A. (SE)
Ceroplastes sinensis Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Ripersiella kondonis Alfalfa/lucerne (Medicago sativa) U.S.A. (SW)
Cryptococcus fagisuga Beech (Fagus) U.S.A. (NE)
Physokermes hemicryphus U.S.A. (SW)
Asterodiaspis variolosa Oak (Quercus) U.S.A. (NE)
Bambusaspis bambusae U.S.A. (SE)
Bambusaspis bambusae Bamboo U.S.A. (SE)
Parasaissetia nigra U.S.A. (SE)
Pulvinaria psidii U.S.A. (SE)
Vinsonia stellifera U.S.A. (SE)
Parlatoria ziziphi Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Parlatoria pergandii Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Parlatoria proteus U.S.A. (mid S)
Aspidiotus excisus U.S.A. (SE)
Hemiberlesia lataniae U.S.A. (SE)
Odonaspis saccharicaulis Grasses/turf/rangeland U.S.A. (SE)
Pinnaspis aspidistrae U.S.A. (SW)
Ischnaspis longirostris
Brevennia rehi Grasses/turf/rangeland U.S.A. (SW)
Pulvinaria floccifera Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudococcus comstocki U.S.A. (NE)
Palmicultor palmarum U.S.A. (SE)
Pinnaspis strachani U.S.A. (SE)
Parthenolecanium persicae U.S.A. (SW)
Pulvinaria vitis U.S.A. (NE)
Eriococcus spurius Elm (Ulmus) U.S.A. (NE)
Oceanaspidiotus araucariae Araucaria (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudococcus odermatti Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudaonidia duplex U.S.A. (mid S)
Parlatoria theae
Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis U.S.A. (SE)
Ceroplastes ceriferus
Hemiberlesia rapax U.S.A. (SW)
Hemiberlesia rapax U.S.A. (SE)
Planococcus ficus U.S.A. (mid S)
Planococcus ficus Grapevine (Vitis) U.S.A. (SW)
Parlatoria oleae U.S.A. (SW)
Ceroplastes cirripediformis U.S.A. (SE)
Aulacaspis tubercularis Mango (Mangifera indica) U.S.A. (SE)
Paracoccus marginatus U.S.A. (SE)
Aulacaspis yasumatsui U.S.A. (SE)
Aonidiella citrina Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SW)
Antonina crawi Bamboo U.S.A. (SW)
Antonina pretiosa Bamboo U.S.A. (SW)
Antonina graminis Grasses/turf/rangeland U.S.A. (mid S)
Balanococcus diminutus New Zealand flax (Phormium tenax) U.S.A. (SW)
Crisicoccus azaleae U.S.A. (SW)
Dysmicoccus wistariae Yew (Taxus) U.S.A. (NE)
Ferrisia malvastra U.S.A. (SE)
Heterococcus nudus Grasses/turf/rangeland U.S.A. (NE)
Nipaecoccus nipae U.S.A. (SW)
Phenacoccus aceris U.S.A. (NE)
Phenacoccus dearnessi U.S.A. (mid N)
Phenacoccus graminicola Apple (Malus) U.S.A. (SW)
Planococcus japonicus U.S.A. (NE)
Pseudococcus elisae U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudococcus importatus U.S.A. (SW)
Pseudococcus jackbeardsleyi U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudococcus microcirculus U.S.A. (SW)
Rhizoecus americanus U.S.A. (SE)
Rhizoecus dianthi U.S.A. (SW)
Rhizoecus falcifer U.S.A. (SW)
Ripersiella hibisci U.S.A. (SE)
Spilococcus mamillariae U.S.A. (SW)
Vryburgia amaryllidis U.S.A. (SW)
Vryburgia brevicruris U.S.A. (SW)
Antonina nakaharai Bamboo U.S.A. (SE)
Eucalymnatus tessellatus U.S.A. (SW)
Eulecanium tiliae U.S.A. (SW)
Insignorthezia insignis U.S.A. (SW)
Matsucoccus matsumurae Pine (Pinus) U.S.A. (NE)
Pulvinaria citricola Citrus (genus) U.S.A. (SW)
Pulvinaria citricola Persimmon (Diospyros) U.S.A. (SW)
Chrysomphalus bifasciculatus U.S.A. (SW)
Aspidiotus cryptomeriae U.S.A. (NE)
Kilifia acuminata U.S.A. (SE)
Saissetia miranda U.S.A. (SE)
Aulacaspis rosae U.S.A. (SW)
Aulacaspis rosae U.S.A. (NE)
Aulacaspis rosae U.S.A. (SE)
Parlatoria cinerea
Ceroplastes floridensis U.S.A. (SE)
Milviscutulus mangiferae U.S.A. (SE)
Saissetia neglecta U.S.A. (SE)
Fiorinia fioriniae U.S.A. (SE)
Howardia biclavis
Diaspis boisduvalii U.S.A. (SE)
Fiorinia theae U.S.A. (SE)
Palmicultor lumpurensis Bamboo U.S.A. (SE)
Chaetococcus bambusae Bamboo U.S.A. (SE)
Diaspis echinocacti U.S.A. (mid S)
Nipaecoccus aurilanatus U.S.A. (SW)
Bambusaspis miliaris U.S.A. (SE)
Bambusaspis miliaris Bamboo U.S.A. (SE)
Planchonia arabidis U.S.A. (NE)
Planchonia stentae U.S.A. (SW)
Pollinia pollini Olive (Olea europaea) U.S.A. (SW)
Russellaspis pustulans U.S.A. (SE)
Cerococcus deklei U.S.A. (mid S)
Ceroplastes dugesii U.S.A. (SE)
Coccus capparidis U.S.A. (SE)
Coccus pseudohesperidum U.S.A. (SE)
Eulecanium kunoense U.S.A. (SW)
Inglisia vitrea
Parthenolecanium fletcheri U.S.A. (NE)
Pulvinaria delottoi U.S.A. (SW)
Pulvinaria urbicola U.S.A. (SE)
Pulvinariella mesembryanthemi U.S.A. (SW)
Sphaerolecanium prunastri U.S.A. (NE)
Conchaspis angraeci U.S.A. (SE)
Andaspis punicae Lychee/litchi (Litchi chinensis) U.S.A. (SE)
Aonidiella taxus Yew (Taxus)
Aonidiella taxus Podocarpus (crop)
Carulaspis minima Juniper (Juniperus) U.S.A. (SW)
Diaspidiotus gigas Poplar/aspen (Populus) U.S.A. (NE)
Diaspidiotus gigas Willow (Salix) U.S.A. (NE)
Fiorinia externa Hemlock (Tsuga) U.S.A. (NE)
Furchadaspis zamiae U.S.A. (SW)
Gymnaspis aechmeae U.S.A. (SE)
Lepidosaphes camelliae U.S.A. (SE)
Lepidosaphes conchiformis U.S.A. (SW)
Lepidosaphes pallida U.S.A. (SW)
Lepidosaphes pini U.S.A. (NE)
Lindingaspis rossi Araucaria (genus) U.S.A. (SW)
Lindingaspis rossi Redwood and relatives (Sequoia) U.S.A. (SW)
Dynaspidiotus tsugae Hemlock (Tsuga) U.S.A. (NE)
Odonaspis ruthae Grasses/turf/rangeland U.S.A. (mid S)
Parlatoria camelliae U.S.A. (SW)
Pseudaonidia paeoniae U.S.A. (NE)
Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli U.S.A. (SE)
Pseudaulacaspis prunicola U.S.A. (NE)
Miscanthicoccus miscanthi Miscanthus (crop) U.S.A. (NE)
Dysmicoccus grassii U.S.A. (SE)
Hypogeococcus pungens U.S.A. (SE)
Mercetaspis halli
Paratachardina pseudolobata U.S.A. (SE)