Annals of the Entomological Society of America (2006) 99, 121-143

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C.E. Causton, S.B. Peck, B.J. Sinclair, L. Roque-Albelo, C.J. Hodgson and B. Landry (2006)
Alien insects: Threats and implications for conservation of Galápagos islands
Annals of the Entomological Society of America 99 (1), 121-143
Abstract: Alien species are the principal threat to the conservation of the Galápagos Islands, but little is known about the status of nonindigenous Galápagos insects and their effects on the biota. Currently, 463 alien insect species have probably been introduced to the Galápagos, an increase of 186 unintentional species introductions since an inventory in 1998. Alien insects now constitute 23% of the total insect fauna. Six species are known to be invasive and a threat to the biota: two species of fire ant and two wasps, a scale insect, and an ectoparasitic dipteran. The ecological impacts of the remaining species are unknown, making the prioritization of action for conservation management difficult. Thus, a newly developed and simple scoring system is presented to predict their potential invasiveness based on trophic functional role, distribution in Galápagos, and history of invasiveness elsewhere. An additional 52 species are predicted to be highly invasive. The endemic flora is most at risk because the largest proportion (42%) of the introduced species is herbivores. Plant populations are threatened principally by vectors of plant disease and by phloem and leaf feeders. Introduced predators and parasitoids (17%) may either be affecting, or have the potential to affect, the status of terrestrial invertebrate populations. At least 10% of the species are considered to be negligible threats to Galápagos ecosystems.
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Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
environment - cropping system/rotation
surveys/sampling/distribution


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Tribolium castaneum Ecuador (Galapagos)
Acanthoscelides obtectus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Zabrotes subfasciatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Xyleborinus saxeseni Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pagiocerus frontalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Oryzaephilus surinamensis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Dinoderus minutus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Cathartus quadricollis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Typhaea stercorea Ecuador (Galapagos)
Necrobia rufipes Ecuador (Galapagos)
Stegobium paniceum Ecuador (Galapagos)
Psoquilla marginepunctata Ecuador (Galapagos)
Dermestes maculatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aphis gossypii Ecuador (Galapagos)
Myzus persicae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Plutella xylostella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Sitotroga cerealella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Culex quinquefasciatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Stomoxys calcitrans Ecuador (Galapagos)
Ctenocephalides felis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aedes aegypti Ecuador (Galapagos)
Rhopalosiphum maidis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Planococcus citri Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aphis craccivora Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aphis citricidus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aphis nerii Ecuador (Galapagos)
Nezara viridula Ecuador (Galapagos)
Phyllocnistis citrella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Coccus hesperidum Ecuador (Galapagos)
Cadra cautella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Diatraea saccharalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Metamasius hemipterus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Unaspis citri Ecuador (Galapagos)
Cosmopolites sordidus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Anastrepha fraterculus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Corcyra cephalonica Ecuador (Galapagos)
Tuta absoluta Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aleurothrixus floccosus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Dermestes carnivorus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Dermestes ater Ecuador (Galapagos)
Piezodorus guildinii Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aulacorthum solani Ecuador (Galapagos)
Thrips tabaci Ecuador (Galapagos)
Alphitobius laevigatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aulacorthum circumflexum Ecuador (Galapagos)
Brevicoryne brassicae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aphis spiraecola Ecuador (Galapagos)
Lepidosaphes beckii Ecuador (Galapagos)
Icerya purchasi Ecuador (Galapagos)
Heteropsylla cubana Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pediculus humanus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Ferrisia virgata Ecuador (Galapagos)
Circulifer tenellus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Hypsipyla grandella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pentalonia nigronervosa Ecuador (Galapagos)
Phenacoccus parvus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Etiella zinckenella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Liposcelis entomophila Ecuador (Galapagos)
Peregrinus maidis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Coccus viridis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aspidiotus destructor Ecuador (Galapagos)
Dysmicoccus boninsis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Dysmicoccus brevipes Ecuador (Galapagos)
Saissetia coffeae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Selenaspidus articulatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Xylosandrus morigerus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aonidiella orientalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Euscepes postfasciatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Diaphania indica Ecuador (Galapagos)
Neoleucinodes elegantalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Hysteroneura setariae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Omiodes indicata Ecuador (Galapagos)
Diaphania nitidalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Niesthrea sidae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pulex irritans Ecuador (Galapagos)
Parasaissetia nigra Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aspidiotus excisus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Hemiberlesia lataniae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Ischnaspis longirostris Ecuador (Galapagos)
Setomorpha rutella Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pyralis manihotalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Spoladea recurvalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Marasmia trapezalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Haplothrips gowdeyi Ecuador (Galapagos)
Neomegalotomus simplex Ecuador (Galapagos)
Aleurotrachelus trachoides Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pinnaspis strachani Ecuador (Galapagos)
Phenacoccus herreni Ecuador (Galapagos)
Sogatella kolophon Ecuador (Galapagos)
Metadelphax propinqua Ecuador (Galapagos)
Halticus bractatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Stenoma catenifer Ecuador (Galapagos)
Ancylostomia stercorea Ecuador (Galapagos)
Herpetogramma bipunctalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Lineodes integra Ecuador (Galapagos)
Rhectocraspeda periusalis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Diaphania hyalinata Ecuador (Galapagos)
Culicoides pusillus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Engytatus modestus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Euxesta stigmatias Ecuador (Galapagos)
Ceroplastes cirripediformis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Chaetocnema confinis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Cimex lectularius Ecuador (Galapagos)
Gryllodes sigillatus Ecuador (Galapagos)
Geococcus coffeae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Phenacoccus solenopsis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Praelongorthezia praelonga Ecuador (Galapagos)
Menopon gallinae Ecuador (Galapagos)
Insignorthezia insignis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Calpodes ethlius Ecuador (Galapagos)
Saissetia miranda Ecuador (Galapagos)
Saissetia neglecta Ecuador (Galapagos)
Howardia biclavis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Coccotrypes dactyliperda Ecuador (Galapagos)
Herpetogramma phaeopteralis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Tunga penetrans Ecuador (Galapagos)
Pulvinaria urbicola Ecuador (Galapagos)
Conchaspis angraeci Ecuador (Galapagos)
Goniodes dissimilis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Crocidosema plebejana Ecuador (Galapagos)
Lipeurus caponis Ecuador (Galapagos)
Bovicola caprae Ecuador (Galapagos)