Environmental Entomology (1989) 18, 541-547

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Judith H. Myers, Charlene Higgins and Ervin Kovacs (1989)
How many insect species are necessary for the biological control of insects?
Environmental Entomology 18 (4), 541-547
Abstract: The authors analyzed 50 published successful classical biological control programs in which an average of 3 species of beneficials were introduced against insect pests. 32% of the successes were credited to a complex of introduced agents (in these cases an average of 2.7 species were introduced). However, twice as many successes were credited to only one of several introduced species (in these cases an average of 3.6 species were introduced).
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Database assignments for author(s): Judith H. Myers

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
classical biocontrol/new introduction

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Hypera postica U.S.A. (SW)
Spodoptera exempta U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Planococcus citri South Africa
Planococcus citri Chile (continental)
Nezara viridula U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Aonidiella aurantii Greece
Aonidiella aurantii Israel
Coccus hesperidum Chile (continental)
Pseudococcus calceolariae U.S.A. (SW)
Saissetia oleae Chile (continental)
Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Bermuda Islands
Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Greece
Icerya purchasi U.S.A. (SW)
Icerya purchasi Puerto Rico
Phytonemus pallidus U.S.A. (SW)
Aleurocanthus spiniferus Japan
Aleurocanthus spiniferus Guam
Planococcus kenyae Kenya
Aleurocanthus woglumi Cuba
Aleurocanthus woglumi Jamaica
Aleurocanthus woglumi Mexico
Aleurocanthus woglumi Barbados
Aspidiotus destructor Indonesia
Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Aspidiotus destructor Vanuatu
Aspidiotus destructor São Tomé and Príncipe
Aspidiotus destructor Mauritius
Chrysomphalus aonidum South Africa
Chrysomphalus aonidum Israel
Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Promecotheca coeruleipennis Fiji Islands
Ceroplastes rubens Japan
Parasaissetia nigra U.S.A. (SW)
Pulvinaria psidii Bermuda Islands
Ischnaspis longirostris Seychelles
Tirathaba complexa Fiji Islands
Parlatoria oleae U.S.A. (SW)
Aonidiella citrina
Lepidosaphes conchiformis U.S.A. (SW)
Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Pinnaspis dysoxyli Peru
Neoseiulus cucumeris (predator) Phytonemus pallidus U.S.A. (SW)
Trichogramma pretiosum (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Galendromus occidentalis (predator) Phytonemus pallidus U.S.A. (SW)
Lespesia archippivora (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (predator) Planococcus citri South Africa
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (predator) Pseudococcus calceolariae U.S.A. (SW)
Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (predator) Pulvinaria psidii Bermuda Islands
Cotesia marginiventris (parasitoid) Spodoptera exempta U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Aphytis lingnanensis (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Greece
Aphytis lingnanensis (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Greece
Aphytis melinus (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Greece
Aphytis melinus (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Greece
Aphytis melinus (parasitoid) Aonidiella citrina
Leptomastidea abnormis (parasitoid) Planococcus citri Chile (continental)
Comperiella bifasciata (parasitoid) Aspidiotus destructor Indonesia
Comperiella bifasciata (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum South Africa
Comperiella bifasciata (parasitoid) Aonidiella citrina
Encarsia citrina (parasitoid) Aspidiotus destructor Indonesia
Encarsia citrina (parasitoid) Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Encarsia citrina (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Encarsia citrina (parasitoid) Pinnaspis dysoxyli Peru
Metaphycus helvolus (parasitoid) Coccus hesperidum Chile (continental)
Metaphycus helvolus (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae U.S.A. (SW)
Metaphycus helvolus (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae Chile (continental)
Metaphycus helvolus (parasitoid) Parasaissetia nigra U.S.A. (SW)
Chilocorus nigritus (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Mauritius
Chilocorus nigritus (predator) Ischnaspis longirostris Seychelles
Rhyzobius lophanthae (predator) Planococcus citri Chile (continental)
Rhyzobius lophanthae (predator) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Bermuda Islands
Bathyplectes curculionis (parasitoid) Hypera postica U.S.A. (SW)
Encarsia opulenta (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus spiniferus Guam
Encarsia opulenta (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Jamaica
Encarsia opulenta (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Mexico
Encarsia opulenta (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Barbados
Scutellista caerulea (parasitoid) Ceroplastes rubens Japan
Scutellista caerulea (parasitoid) Parlatoria oleae Peru
Rodolia cardinalis (predator) Icerya purchasi U.S.A. (SW)
Rodolia cardinalis (predator) Icerya purchasi Puerto Rico
Encarsia smithi (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus spiniferus Japan
Encarsia smithi (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus spiniferus Guam
Encarsia smithi (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Cuba
Encarsia smithi (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Mexico
Trissolcus basalis (parasitoid) Nezara viridula U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Encarsia berlesei (parasitoid) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Bermuda Islands
Metaphycus flavus (parasitoid) Coccus hesperidum Chile (continental)
Brachymeria lasus (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Chilocorus politus (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Indonesia
Chilocorus politus (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Mauritius
Encarsia aurantii (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Aphytis chrysomphali (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Greece
Aphytis chrysomphali (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Israel
Aphytis chrysomphali (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus dictyospermi Greece
Aphytis chrysomphali (parasitoid) Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Argyrophylax basifulva (parasitoid) Tirathaba complexa Fiji Islands
Venturia palmaris (parasitoid) Tirathaba complexa Fiji Islands
Bessa remota (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Cryptognatha nodiceps (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Cryptognatha nodiceps (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Vanuatu
Pediobius parvulus (parasitoid) Promecotheca coeruleipennis Fiji Islands
Chilocorus bipustulatus (predator) Aonidiella aurantii Israel
Chilocorus bipustulatus (predator) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Bermuda Islands
Aphytis holoxanthus (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum South Africa
Aphytis holoxanthus (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum Israel
Aphytis holoxanthus (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Telenomus nawai (parasitoid) Spodoptera exempta U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Eucelatoria armigera (parasitoid) Spodoptera exempta U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Coccophagus gurneyi (parasitoid) Pseudococcus calceolariae U.S.A. (SW)
Euplectrus platyhypenae (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Meteorus laphygmae (parasitoid) Spodoptera exempta U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Aphytis maculicornis (parasitoid) Parlatoria oleae U.S.A. (SW)
Aphytis mytilaspidis (parasitoid) Lepidosaphes conchiformis U.S.A. (SW)
Trichopoda pennipes (parasitoid) Nezara viridula U.S.A. (Hawaii)
Anagyrus beneficians (parasitoid) Planococcus kenyae Kenya
Aphytis diaspidis (parasitoid) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Bermuda Islands
Encarsia clypealis (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus spiniferus Guam
Encarsia clypealis (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Mexico
Encarsia divergens (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Cuba
Encarsia merceti (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Cuba
Pteroptrix smithi (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum Israel
Eretmocerus serius (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus spiniferus Guam
Eretmocerus serius (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Cuba
Eretmocerus serius (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Jamaica
Eretmocerus serius (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Barbados
Amitus hesperidum (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus spiniferus Guam
Amitus hesperidum (parasitoid) Aleurocanthus woglumi Mexico
Azya luteipes (predator) Pulvinaria psidii Bermuda Islands
Anicetus beneficus (parasitoid) Ceroplastes rubens Japan
Arrhenophagus chionaspidis (parasitoid) Pinnaspis dysoxyli Peru
Encarsia diaspidicola (parasitoid) Pseudaulacaspis pentagona Bermuda Islands
Encarsia lounsburyi (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Chilocorus distigma (predator) Ischnaspis longirostris Seychelles
Pentilia insidiosa (predator) Aspidiotus destructor São Tomé and Príncipe
Rhyzobius pulchellus (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Vanuatu
Pseudoazya trinitatis (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Pseudoazya trinitatis (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Vanuatu
Pseudoazya trinitatis (predator) Aspidiotus destructor São Tomé and Príncipe
Zagloba aeneipennis (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Palexorista painei (parasitoid) Tirathaba complexa Fiji Islands
Echthromorpha agrestoria (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Chelonus blackburni (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Casinaria infesta (parasitoid) Levuana iridescens Fiji Islands
Metaphycus lounsburyi (parasitoid) Saissetia oleae Chile (continental)
Metaphycus lounsburyi (parasitoid) Parlatoria oleae Peru
Aphytis coheni (parasitoid) Aonidiella aurantii Israel
Tetracnemoidea brevicornis (parasitoid) Pseudococcus calceolariae U.S.A. (SW)
Coccophagus ceroplastae (parasitoid) Ceroplastes rubens Japan
Exochomus flavipes (predator) Planococcus citri South Africa
Dibrachoides dynastes (parasitoid) Hypera postica U.S.A. (SW)
Lecaniobius utilis (parasitoid) Parlatoria oleae Peru
Microterys kotinskyi (parasitoid) Ceroplastes rubens Japan
Microterys kotinskyi (parasitoid) Pulvinaria psidii Bermuda Islands
Coccophagoides utilis (parasitoid) Parlatoria oleae U.S.A. (SW)
Typhlodromus reticulatus (predator) Phytonemus pallidus U.S.A. (SW)
Catana clauseni (predator) Aleurocanthus woglumi Cuba
Cryptognatha simillima (predator) Aspidiotus destructor Fiji Islands
Moranila californica (parasitoid) Ceroplastes rubens Japan
Pseudhomalopoda prima (parasitoid) Chrysomphalus aonidum U.S.A. (SE)
Anaphes fuscipennis (parasitoid) Hypera postica U.S.A. (SW)
Exochomus ventralis (predator) Ischnaspis longirostris Seychelles