Carl A. Bradley

From Pestinfo-Wiki
Jump to: navigation, search

See Carl A. Bradley in the ISPI database of scientists.


Publications of Carl A. Bradley

Plant Disease (2019) 103, 223-237
P.A. Paul, J.D. Salgado, G. Bergstrom, C.A. Bradley, E. Byamukama, A.M. Byrne, V. Chapara, J.A. Cummings, M.I. Chilvers, R. Dill-Macky, A. Friskop, N. Kleczewski, L.V. Madden, M. Nagelkirk, J. Stevens, M. Smith, S.N. Wegulo, K. Wise and D. Yabwalo (2019)
Integrated effects of genetic resistance and prothioconazole + tebuconazole application timing on Fusarium head blight in wheat

Plant Disease (2019) 103, 1712-1720
Yuba R. Kandel, Carl A. Bradley, Martin I. Chilvers, Febina M. Mathew, Albert U. Tenuta, Damon L. Smith, Kiersten A. Wise and Daren S. Mueller (2019)
Effect of seed treatment and foliar crop protection products on sudden death syndrome and yield of soybean

Plant Disease (2019) 103, 677-684
Krishna Ghimire, Kristina Petrovic, Brian J. Kontz, Carl A. Bradley, Martin I. Chilvers, Daren S. Mueller, Damon L. Smith, Kiersten A. Wise and Febina M. Mathew (2019)
Inoculation method impacts symptom development associated with Diaporthe aspalathi, D. caulivora, and D. longicolla on soybean (Glycine max)

Phytopathology (2019) 109, 1157-1170
Jaime F. Willbur, Paul D. Mitchell, Mamadou L. Fall, Adam M. Byrne, Scott A. Chapman, Crystal M. Floyd, Carl A. Bradley, K.A. Ames, Martin I. Chilvers, Nathan M. Kleczewski, Dean K. Malvick, Brian D. Mueller, Daren S. Mueller, Mehdi Kabbage, Shawn P. Conley and Damon L. Smith (2019)
Meta-analytic and economic approaches for evaluation of pesticide impact on Sclerotinia stem rot control and soybean yield in the North Central United States

Plant Disease (2018) 102, 292-299
Japheth D. Weems and Carl A. Bradley (2018)
Exserohilum turcicum race population distribution in the north central United States

Plant Disease (2018) 102, 2500-2510
Pierce A. Paul, Carl A. Bradley, Laurence V. Madden, Felipe Dalla Lana, Gary C. Bergstrom, Ruth Dill-Macky, Kiersten A. Wise, Paul D. Esker, Marcia McMullen, Arvydas Grybauskas, William W. Kirk, Eugene Milus and Kay Ruden (2018)
Effects of pre- and postanthesis applications of demethylation inhibitor fungicides on Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in spring and winter wheat

Plant Disease (2018) 102, 1141-1147
Kaitlyn M. Bissonnette, Frederic L. Kolb, Keith A. Ames and Carl A. Bradley (2018)
Effect of Fusarium head blight management practices on mycotoxin contamination of wheat straw

Plant Disease (2018) 102, 1681-1686
Daren S. Mueller, Adam J. Sisson, Rachel Kempker, Scott Isard, Connor Raymond, Andrew J. Gennett, William Sheffer and Carl A. Bradley (2018)
Scout, snap, and share: First impressions of plant disease monitoring using social media

Phytopathology (2018) 108, 1078-1088
P.D. Esker, D.A. Shah, C.A. Bradley, S.P. Conley, P.A. Paul and A.E. Robertson (2018)
Perceptions of Midwestern crop advisors and growers on foliar fungicide adoption and use in maize

Plant Disease (2018) 102, 2241-2252
K.S. Rod, D.R. Walker and C.A. Bradley (2018)
Evaluation of major ancestors of North American soybean cultivars for resistance to three Pythium species that cause seedling blight

Plant Pathology (2018) 67, 3-17
O.O. Ajayi-Oyetunde and C.A. Bradley (2018)
Rhizoctonia solani: taxonomy, population biology and management of rhizoctonia seedling disease of soybean

Phytopathology (2017) 107, 293-304
J. Alejandro Rojas, Janette L. Jacobs, Stephanie Napieralski, Behirda Karaj, Carl A. Bradley, Thomas Chase, Paul D. Esker, Loren J. Giesler, Doug J. Jardine, Dean K. Malvick, Samuel G. Markell, Berlin D. Nelson, Alison E. Robertson, John C. Rupe, Damon L. Smith, Laura E. Sweets, Albert U. Tenuta, Kiersten A. Wise and Martin I. Chilvers (2017)
Oomycete species associated with soybean seedlings in North America - part II: Diversity and ecology in relation to environmental and edaphic factors

Plant Disease (2017) 101, 576-582
Jie Wang, Carl A. Bradley, Olivia Stenzel, Dianne K. Pedersen, Ursula Reuter-Carlson and Martin I. Chilvers (2017)
Baseline sensitivity of Fusarium virguliforme to fluopyram fungicide

Plant Disease (2017) 101, 520-533
Olutoyosi O. Ajayi-Oyetunde and Carl A. Bradley (2017)
Identification and characterization of Rhizoctonia species associated with soybean seedling disease

Plant Disease (2017) 101, 487-495
Olutoyosi O. Ajayi-Oyetunde, Carolyn J. Butts-Wilmsmeyer and Carl A. Bradley (2017)
Sensitivity of Rhizoctonia solani to succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor and demethylation inhibitor fungicides

Plant Disease (2017) 101, 2137-2143
Yuba R. Kandel, Kiersten A. Wise, Carl A. Bradley, Martin I. Chilvers, Adam M. Byrne, Albert U. Tenuta, Jamal Faghihi, Stith N. Wiggs and Daren S. Mueller (2017)
Effect of soybean cyst nematode resistance source and seed treatment on population densities of Heterodera glycines, sudden death syndrome, and yield of soybean

Phytopathology (2017) 107, 280-292
J. Alejandro Rojas, Janette L. Jacobs, Stephanie Napieralski, Behirda Karaj, Carl A. Bradley, Thomas Chase, Paul D. Esker, Loren J. Giesler, Doug J. Jardine, Dean K. Malvick, Samuel G. Markell, Berlin D. Nelson, Alison E. Robertson, John C. Rupe, Damon L. Smith, Laura E. Sweets, Albert U. Tenuta, Kiersten A. Wise and Martin I. Chilvers (2017)
Oomycete species associated with soybean seedlings in North America - part I: Identification and pathogenicity characterization

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology (2017) 39, 334-341
Nolan R. Anderson, Melissa D. Irizarry, Chris A. Bloomingdale, Damon L. Smith, Carl A. Bradley, Dennis P. Delaney, Nathan M. Kleczewski, Edward J. Sikora, Daren S. Mueller and Kiersten A. Wise (2017)
Effect of soybean vein necrosis on yield and seed quality of soybean

Journal of Economic Entomology (2016) 109, 1431-1437
O.O. Ajayi-Oyetunde, B.W. Diers, D. Lagos-Kutz, C.B. Hill, G.L. Hartman, U. Reuter-Carlson and C.A. Bradley (2016)
Differential reactions of soybean isolines with combinations of aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, and Rag3 to four soybean aphid biotypes

Plant Disease (2016) 100, 1429-1437
A.E. Dorrance, J. Kurle, A.E. Robertson, C.A. Bradley, L. Giesler, K. Wise and V.C. Concibido (2016)
Pathotype diversity of Phytophthora sojae in eleven states in the United States

Plant Disease (2016) 100, 1339-1350
Yuba R. Kandel, Kiersten A. Wise, Carl A. Bradley, Martin I. Chilvers, Albert U. Tenuta and Daren S. Mueller (2016)
Fungicide and cultivar effects on sudden death syndrome and yield of soybean

Plant Disease (2016) 100, 1735-1743
Yuba R. Kandel, Kiersten A. Wise, Carl A. Bradley, Albert U. Tenuta and Daren S. Mueller (2016)
Effect of planting date, seed treatment, and cultivar on plant population, sudden death syndrome, and yield of soybean

Archives of Virology (2015) 160, 1313-1317
Bright O. Agindotan, Leslie L. Domier and Carl A. Bradley (2015)
Detection and characterization of the first North American mastrevirus in switchgrass

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology (2015) 37, 435-447
J.D. Weems, J.S. Haudenshield, J.P. Bond, G.L. Hartman, K.A. Ames and C.A. Bradley (2015)
Effect of fungicide seed treatments on Fusarium virguliforme infection of soybean and development of sudden death syndrome

European Journal of Plant Pathology (2015) 143, 641-649
Kishore Chittem, Febina M. Mathew, Matthew Gregoire, Robin S. Lamppa, Yen Wei Chang, Samuel G. Markell, Carl A. Bradley, Tharcisse Barasubiye and Rubella S. Goswami (2015)
Identification and characterization of Fusarium spp. associated with root rots of field pea in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2015) 99, 347-354
Yuba R. Kandel, Carl A. Bradley, Kiersten A. Wise, Martin I. Chilvers, Albert U. Tenuta, Vince M. Davis, Paul D. Esker, Damon L. Smith, Mark A. Licht and Daren S. Mueller (2015)
Effect of glyphosate application on sudden death syndrome of glyphosate-resistant soybean under field conditions

Plant Disease (2015) 99, 1434-1444
K.T. Willyerd, C.A. Bradley, V. Chapara, S.P. Conley, P.D. Esker, L.V. Madden, K.A. Wise and P.A. Paul (2015)
Revisiting fungicide-based management guidelines for leaf blotch diseases in soft red winter wheat

Phytopathology (2015) 105, 1080-1089
Sally O. Mallowa, Paul D. Esker, Pierce A. Paul, Carl A. Bradley, Venkata R. Chapara, Shawn P. Conley and Alison E. Robertson (2015)
Effect of maize hybrid and foliar fungicides on yield under low foliar disease severity conditions

HortScience (2015) 50, 1791-1794
Martin M. Williams, Carl A. Bradley, Stephen O. Duke, Jude E. Maul and Krishna N. Reddy (2015)
Goss's wilt incidence in sweet corn is independent of transgenic traits and glyphosate

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology (2015) 37, 160-164
K.M. Mehl, J.D. Weems, K.A. Ames and C.A. Bradley (2015)
Evaluation of foliar-applied copper hydroxide and citric acid for control of Goss's wilt and leaf blight of corn

Plant Disease (2015) 99, 544-550
F. Zeng, E. Arnao, G. Zhang, G. Olaya, J. Wullschleger, H. Sierotzki, R. Ming, B.H. Bluhm, J.P. Bond, A.M. Fakhoury and C.A. Bradley (2015)
Characterization of quinone outside inhibitor fungicide resistance in Cercospora sojina and development of diagnostic tools for its identification

Plant Disease (2014) 98, 1387-1397
D.L. D'Angelo, C.A. Bradley, K.A. Ames, K.T. Willyerd, L.V. Madden and P.A. Paul (2014)
Efficacy of fungicide applications during and after anthesis against Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in soft red winter wheat

Plant Disease (2014) 98, 864-875
E.J. Sikora, T.W. Allen, K.A. Wise, G. Bergstrom, C.A. Bradley, J. Bond, D. Brown-Rytlewski, M. Chilvers, J. Damicone, E. DeWolf, A. Dorrance, N. Dufault, P. Esker, T.R. Faske, L. Giesler, N. Goldberg, J. Golod, I.R.G. Gómez, C. Grau, A. Grybauskas, G. Franc, R. Hammerschmidt, G.L. Hartman, R.A. Henn, D. Hershman, C. Hollier, T. Isakeit, S. Isard, B. Jacobsen, D. Jardine, R. Kemerait, S. Koenning, M. Langham, D. Malvick, S. Markell, J.J. Marois, S. Monfort, D. Mueller, J. Mueller, R. Mulrooney, M. Newman, L. Osborne, G.B. Padgett, B.E. Ruden, J. Rupe, R. Schneider, H. Schwartz, G. Shaner, S. Singh, E. Stromberg, L. Sweets, A. Tenuta, S. Vaiciunas, X.B. Yang, H. Young-Kelly and J. Zidek (2014)
A coordinated effort to manage soybean rust in North America: A success story in soybean disease monitoring

Plant Disease (2014) 98, 328-335
Achala Nepal, S. Markell, J. Knodel, C.A. Bradley and L.E. del Río Mendoza (2014)
Prevalence of blackleg and pathogenicity groups of Leptosphaeria maculans in North Dakota

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology (2013) 35, 384-389
B.O. Agindotan, J.R. Prasifka, M.E. Gray, C.H. Dietrich and C.A. Bradley (2013)
Transmission of Switchgrass mosaic virus by Graminella aureovittata

Plant Pathology (2013) 62, 688-697
J.A. Delgado, T.C. Lynnes, S.W. Meinhardt, K.A. Wise, N.C. Gudmestad, C.A. Bradley, S.G. Markell and R.S. Goswami (2013)
Identification of the mutation responsible for resistance to QoI fungicides and its detection in Ascochyta rabiei (teleomorph Didymella rabiei)

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology (2013) 35, 81-86
Bright Agindotan, Ngozi Okanu, Adebosola Oladeinde, Thomas Voigt, Stephen Long, Michael Gray and Carl Bradley (2013)
Detection of Switchgrass mosaic virus in Miscanthus and other grasses

Journal of Integrated Pest Management (2012) 3, B1a-B7a
Angelique J. Peltier, Carl A. Bradley, Martin I. Chilvers, Dean K. Malvick, Daren S. Mueller, Kiersten A. Wise and Paul D. Esker (2012)
Biology, yield loss and control of Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean

Archives of Virology (2012) 157, 1825-1830
Bright O. Agindotan, Michael E. Gray, Rosemarie W. Hammond and Carl A. Bradley (2012)
Complete genome sequence of Switchgrass mosaic virus, a member of a proposed new species in the genus Marafivirus

Plant Disease (2012) 96, p. 767 (Zhang et al.)
G.R. Zhang, M.A. Newman and C.A. Bradley (2012)
First report of the soybean frogeye leaf spot fungus (Cercospora sojina) resistant to quinone outside inhibitor fungicides in North America

Plant Disease (2012) 96, 957-967
K.T. Willyerd, C. Li, L.V. Madden, C.A. Bradley, G.C. Bergstrom, L.E. Sweets, M. McMullen, J.K. Ransom, A. Grybauskas, L. Osborne, S.N. Wegulo, D.E. Hershman, K. Wise, W.W. Bockus, D. Groth, R. Dill-Macky, E. Milus, P.D. Esker, K. D. Waxman, E. A. Adee, S. E. Ebelhar, B. G. Young and P. A. Paul (2012)
Efficacy and stability of integrating fungicide and cultivar resistance to manage Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol in wheat

Plant Disease (2011) 95, p. 1318 (Weems et al.)
J.D. Weems, S.A. Ebelhar, V. Chapara, D.K. Pedersen, G.R. Zhang and C.A. Bradley (2011)
First report of charcoal rot caused by Macrophomina phaseolina on sunflower in Illinois

Plant Disease (2011) 95, p. 616 (Ahonsi et al.)
M.O. Ahonsi, B.O. Agindotan, M.E. Gray and C.A. Bradley (2011)
First report of basal stem rot and foliar blight caused by Pythium sylvaticum on Miscanthus sinensis in Illinois

Plant Disease (2011) 95, 189-194
C.A. Bradley and D.K. Pedersen (2011)
Baseline sensitivity of Cercospora zeae-maydis to quinone outside inhibitor fungicides

Plant Disease (2010) 94, p. 1262 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, D.K. Pedersen, G.R. Zhang and N.R. Pataky (2010)
Occurrences of diplodia leaf streak caused by Stenocarpella macrospora on corn (Zea mays) in Illinois

Plant Disease (2010) 94, p. 273 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, N.R. Pataky, T. Gulya, A. Friskop, J. Jordah and S. Markell (2010)
First report of virulence phenotypes of Puccinia helianthi, causal agent of sunflower rust in Illinois

Plant Disease (2010) 94, p. 480 (Ahonsi et al.)
M.O. Ahonsi, B.O. Agindotan, D.W. Williams, R. Arundale, M.E. Gray, T.B. Voigt and C.A. Bradley (2010)
First report of Pithomyces chartarum causing a leaf blight of Miscanthus × giganteus in Kentucky

Plant Disease (2010) 94, p. 477 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, R.A. Hines, N.R. Pataky, J.S. Haudenshield and G.L. Hartman (2010)
First report of soybean rust caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

Plant Disease (2010) 94, 83-86
C.A. Bradley and K.A. Ames (2010)
Effect of foliar fungicides on corn with simulated hail damage

HortTechnology (2009) 19, 533-537
Kiersten A. Wise, Robert A. Henson and Carl A. Bradley (2009)
Fungicide seed treatment effects on seed-borne Ascochyta rabiei in chickpea

Plant Disease (2009) 93, 528-536
K.A. Wise, C.A. Bradley, J.S. Pasche and N.C. Gudmestad (2009)
Resistance to QoI fungicides in Ascochyta rabiei from chickpea in the Northern Great Plains

Plant Disease (2009) 93, p. 760 (Meyer et al.)
M.D. Meyer, G.R. Zhang, D.K. Pedersen and C.A. Bradley (2009)
First report of Phomopsis stem canker of sunflower in Illinois caused by Phomopsis helianthi

Plant Disease (2008) 92, 120-125
C.A. Bradley (2008)
Effect of fungicide seed treatments on stand establishment, seedling disease, and yield of soybean in North Dakota

Agronomy Journal (2008) 100, 315-319
Harikrishnan Ramasubramaniam, Luis E. del Río Mendoza and Carl A. Bradley (2008)
Estimates of yield and economic losses associated with white mold of rain-fed dry bean in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2008) 92, 295-300
K.A. Wise, C.A. Bradley, J.S. Pasche, N.C. Gudmestad, F.M. Dugan and W. Chen (2008)
Baseline sensitivity of Ascochyta rabiei to azoxystrobin, pyraclostrobin, and boscalid

Plant Disease (2008) 92, 1197-1200
V.N. Bilgi, C.A. Bradley, S.D. Khot, K.F. Grafton and J.B. Rasmussen (2008)
Response of dry bean genotypes to Fusarium root rot, caused by Fusarium solani f. sp. phaseoli, under field and controlled conditions

Plant Disease (2008) 92, 719-724
Z. Xu, M.L. Gleason, D.S. Mueller, P.D. Esker, C.A. Bradley, J.W. Buck, D.M. Benson, P.M. Dixon and J.E.B.A. Monteiro (2008)
Overwintering of Sclerotium rolfsii and S. rolfsii var. delphinii in different latitudes of the United States

Plant Disease (2008) 92, p. 315 (Wise et al.)
K.A. Wise, Y.F. Zhao and C.A. Bradley (2008)
First report of pink seed of pea caused by Erwinia rhapontici in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2007) 91, p. 470 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, P. Burlakoti, R.S. Nelson and M.F.R. Khan (2007)
First report of the perfect stage of powdery mildew of sugar beet in North Dakota caused by Erysiphe polygoni

Plant Disease (2007) 91, 191-194
L.E. del Río, C.A. Bradley, R.A. Henson, G.J. Endres, B.K. Hanson, K. McKay, M. Halvorson, P.M. Porter, D.G. Le Gare and H.A. Lamey (2007)
Impact of Sclerotinia stem rot on yield of canola

Plant Disease (2006) 90, p. 1554 (Gulya et al.)
T.J. Gulya, R.W. Gesch, C.A. Bradley, L.E. del Rio and B.L. Johnson (2006)
First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection on Cuphea

Plant Disease (2006) 90, p. 687 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley and S. Li (2006)
First report of northern stem canker of soybean caused by Diaporthe phaseolorum var. caulivora in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2006) 90, 215-219
C.A. Bradley, R.A. Henson, P.M. Porter, D.G. LeGare, L.E. del Río and S.D. Khot (2006)
Response of canola cultivars to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in controlled and field environments

Plant Disease (2006) 90, 1129-1134
C.A. Bradley, H.A. Lamey, G.J. Endres, R.A. Henson, B.K. Hanson, K.R. McKay, M. Halvorson, D.G. LeGare and P.M. Porter (2006)
Efficacy of fungicides for control of sclerotinia stem rot of canola

Plant Disease (2005) 89, p. 208 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, L.E. del Río, C.D. Chesrown and B.L. Johnson (2005)
First report of soft rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on borage in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2005) 89, p. 776 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, P.S. Parks, Y. Chen and W.G.D. Fernando (2005)
First report of pathogenicity groups 3 and 4 of Leptosphaeria maculans on canola in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2005) 89, p. 341 (Windels et al.)
C.E. Windels, J.R. Brantner, C.A. Bradley and M.F.R. Khan (2005)
First report of Fusarium oxysporum causing yellows on sugar beet in the Red River Valley of Minnesota and North Dakota

Plant Disease (2005) 89, p. 684 (del Rio et al.)
L.E. del Río, C.A. Bradley and B.L. Johnson (2005)
First report of white mold caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Echium (Echium vulgare)

Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology (2004) 26, 167-176
Carl A. Strausbaugh, Carl A. Bradley, Anita C. Koehn and Robert L. Forster (2004)
Survey of root diseases of wheat and barley in southeastern Idaho

Plant Disease (2004) 88, p. 1287 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, C.R. Biller and B.D. Nelson (2004)
First report of soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) on soybean in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2004) 88, 1123-1126
S. Halley, C.A. Bradley, J.R. Lukach, M. McMullen, J.J. Knodel, G.J. Endres and T. Gregoire (2004)
Distribution and severity of pasmo on flax in North Dakota and evaluation of fungicides and cultivars for management

Plant Disease (2003) 87, p. 601 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley and L.E. del Río (2003)
First report of charcoal rot on soybean caused by Macrophomina phaseolina in North Dakota

Plant Disease (2003) 87, p. 602 (Bradley et al.)
C.A. Bradley, L.E. del Río and B.L. Johnson (2003)
First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on niger (Guizotia abyssinica)

Plant Disease (2003) 87, p. 1537 (del Rio et al.)
L.E. del Río, C.A. Bradley and R.S. Lamppa (2003)
First report of white leaf spot of dry bean caused by Pseudocercosporella albida in North America

Journal of Nematology (2003) 35, 88-97
C.A. Bradley, G.R. Noel, C.R. Grau, J.M. Gaska, N.C. Kurtzweil, A.E. MacGuidwin, L.M. Wax, G.L. Hartman and W.L. Pedersen (2003)
Impact of herbicides on Heterodera glycines susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars

Plant Disease (2002) 86, 26-31
D.S. Mueller, A.E. Dorrance, R.C. Derksen, E. Ozkan, J.E. Kurle, C.R. Grau, J.M. Gaska, G.L. Hartman, C.A. Bradley and W.L. Pedersen (2002)
Efficacy of fungicides on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and their potential for control of sclerotinia stem rot on soybean

Plant Disease (2002) 86, 1036-1042
C.A. Bradley, G.L. Hartman, L.M. Wax and W.L. Pedersen (2002)
Quality of harvested seed associated with soybean cultivars and herbicides under weed-free conditions

Plant Disease (2001) 85, 1091-1095
C.A. Bradley, G.L. Hartman, R.L. Nelson, D.S. Mueller and W.L. Pedersen (2001)
Response of ancestral soybean lines and commercial cultivars to Rhizoctonia root and hypocotyl rot

Plant Disease (2001) 85, p. 1031 (Li et al.)
S. Li, C.A. Bradley, G.L. Hartman and W.L. Pedersen (2001)
First report of Phomopsis longicolla from velvetleaf causing stem lesions on inoculated soybean and velvetleaf plants