Journal of Economic Entomology (2009) 102, 2011-2025

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Bruce E. Tabashnik, J.B.J. Van Rensburg and Yves Carrière (2009)
Field-evolved insect resistance to Bt crops: Definition, theory, and data
Journal of Economic Entomology 102 (6), 2011-2025
Abstract: Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins for insect pest control have been successful, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Here we review the definition of field-evolved resistance, the relationship between resistance and field control problems, the theory underlying strategies for delaying resistance, and resistance monitoring methods. We also analyze resistance monitoring data from five continents reported in 41 studies that evaluate responses of field populations of 11 lepidopteran pests to four Bt toxins produced by Bt corn and cotton. After more than a decade since initial commercialization of Bt crops, most target pest populations remain susceptible, whereas field-evolved resistance has been documented in some populations of three noctuid moth species: Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith) to in Bt corn in Puerto Rico, Busseola fusca (Fuller) to Cry1Ab in Bt corn in South Africa, and Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) to Cry1Ac and Cry2Ab in Bt cotton in the southeastern United States. Field outcomes are consistent with predictions from theory, suggesting that factors delaying resistance include recessive inheritance of resistance, abundant refuges of non-Bt host plants, and two-toxin Bt crops deployed separately from one-toxin Bt crops. The insights gained from systematic analyses of resistance monitoring data may help to enhance the durability of transgenic insecticidal crops. We recommend continued use of the long-standing definition of resistance cited here and encourage discussions about which regulatory actions, if any, should be triggered by specific data on the magnitude, distribution, and impact of field-evolved resistance.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Bruce E. Tabashnik, Yves Carriere

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host
review


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium) India
Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium) China (NE)
Helicoverpa zea Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Helicoverpa zea Soybean (Glycine max) U.S.A. (mid S)
Helicoverpa zea Clover (Trifolium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Helicoverpa zea Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) U.S.A. (mid S)
Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Diatraea grandiosella Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Busseola fusca Maize/corn (Zea mays) South Africa
Spodoptera frugiperda Maize/corn (Zea mays) Puerto Rico
Diatraea saccharalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SW)
Helicoverpa punctigera Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium) China (NE)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Diatraea grandiosella Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Busseola fusca Maize/corn (Zea mays) South Africa
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Spodoptera frugiperda Maize/corn (Zea mays) Puerto Rico
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Diatraea saccharalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SW)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa punctigera Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium) China (NE)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Diatraea grandiosella Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Busseola fusca Maize/corn (Zea mays) South Africa
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Diatraea saccharalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SW)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa punctigera Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F-toxin (entomopathogen) Spodoptera frugiperda Maize/corn (Zea mays) Puerto Rico
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa punctigera Cotton (Gossypium)