Evolutionary Applications (2010) 3, 561-573

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Yves Carrière, David W. Crowder and Bruce E. Tabashnik (2010)
Evolutionary ecology of insect adaptation to Bt crops
Evolutionary Applications 3 (5-6), 561-573
Abstract: Transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins are used worldwide to control major pests of corn and cotton. Development of strategies to delay the evolution of pest resistance to Bt crops requires an understanding of factors affecting responses to natural selection, which include variation in survival on Bt crops, heritability of resistance, and fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations. The two main strategies adopted for delaying resistance are the refuge and pyramid strategies. Both can reduce heritability of resistance, but pyramids can also delay resistance by reducing genetic variation for resistance. Seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic cultivars, however, can increase the heritability of resistance. The fitness advantages associated with resistance mutations can be reduced by agronomic practices, including increasing refuge size, manipulating refuges to increase fitness costs, and manipulating Bt cultivars to reduce fitness of resistant individuals. Manipulating costs and fitness of resistant individuals on transgenic insecticidal crops may be especially important for thwarting evolution of resistance in haplodiploid and parthenogenetic pests. Field-evolved resistance to Bt crops in only five pests during the last 14 years suggests that the refuge strategy has successfully delayed resistance, but the accumulation of resistant pests could accelerate.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Yves Carriere, Bruce E. Tabashnik, David W. Crowder

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) France
Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid N)
Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium)
Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Diatraea grandiosella Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Diatraea saccharalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Greece
Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SW)
Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) France
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid N)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Diatraea grandiosella Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Diatraea saccharalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Greece
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SW)
Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) France
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid N)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Ostrinia nubilalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Chloridea virescens Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SE)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Diatraea grandiosella Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Diatraea saccharalis Maize/corn (Zea mays) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Greece
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Sesamia nonagrioides Maize/corn (Zea mays) Spain (continental)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (SW)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Pectinophora gossypiella Cotton (Gossypium) U.S.A. (mid S)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry2A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa armigera Cotton (Gossypium)