Ralstonia solanacearum

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Ralstonia solanacearum, typical brown discoloration of the vascular ring and slime oozing from the infected tissue on a potato tuber. The black necrotic tissue is due to secondary rotting.
Source: Plant Protection Service, Netherlands - IPM Images

Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith 1896) Yabuuchi et al. 1996

The bacterium is widespread, soil-borne and seed-borne, causing vascular necrosis, wilting, yellowing and stunting on various crops. The bacterium invades the xylem and disrupts the water transport. Symptoms typically also include bacterial streaming or ooze from a cut stem sections. Susceptible host plants may wilt and die within days (sudden wilt). Potatoes (brown rot), tomatoes (bacterial wilt), groundnuts or tobacco (Granville wilt) are often affected. Epidemics particularly develop during higher temperature and high moisture.

Infected fields can rarely be reused, even after rotation with non-host plants. The disease is mainly controlled by the use of resistant and tolerant cultivars. The prevention of spread of the disease has been achieved, in some instances, by the application of strict prophylactic sanitation practices.

Vernacular names
• Deutsch: Schleimkrankheit der Kartoffel
• English: potato brown rot
bacterial wilt of tomato
Granville wilt
• Français: pourriture brune de la pomme de terre

The bacterium belongs to the Proteobacteria and isolates show a large variation in host range, geographic distribution and physiological characters. Four "phylotypes" have been described for this species. Some of them have been assigned to separate species (see for example Safni et al., 2014):
phylotype I - now assigned to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum
phylotype II - causes various diseases like potato brown rot or the Moko disease of banana
phylotype III - now assigned to Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum
phylotype IV - now assigned as subspecies under Ralstonia syzygii

Burkholderia solanacearum
Pseudomonas solanacearum

For reviews see Mamphogoro et al. (2020) and Horita et al. (2014).