Phyllosticta citricarpa

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Phyllosticta citricarpa (=Guignardia citricarpa) symptoms on lemon fruit (click on image to enlarge it)
Source: Florida Division of Plant Industry Archive, Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services - IPM Images

Phyllosticta citricarpa (McAlpine 1899) Aa 1973

Phyllosticta citricarpa symptoms on orange fruit (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): P. Barkley, Biological and Chemical Research Institute
Source: IPM Images

The fungus causes citrus black spot and has been mainly a problem in the southern hemisphere (South Africa, Australia and South America). However, it was discovered in southern Florida, U.S.A. in 2010, where attempts are underway to prevent its spread to other parts of Florida. The disease causes severe fruit spotting and fruit drop. Infected fruits are unmarketable as fresh fruits. It is an important quarantine disease in Europe (EPPO Bulletin, 2020).

The fungus reproduced sexually, forming ascospores in pseudothecia in the leaf litter. These are released under moist conditions and spread through the air. Asexual reproduction involves the formation of conidia in pycnidia in the fruit lesions or on twigs which mainly spread by rain splashes. The disease is managed by removing leaf litter, early fruit harvesting and the use of fungicides.

Guignardia citricarpa

Vernacular names
• Deutsch: Schwarzfleckigkeit des Zitrus
• English: black spot of citrus
citrus black spot
• Español: mancha negra de las frutas de cítricos
• Français: taches noires des fruits des agrumes
• Português: mancha preta dos frutos cítricos

For a review see Guarnaccia et al. (2019).