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Melampsora allii-populina Kleb. 1902
This fungus is found in Europe and Asia. It is one of several Melampsora species causing poplar rust (e.g. see also Melampsora larici-populina and Melampsora medusae). These cause similar symptoms like yellow to orange uredinia on the lower surface of poplar leaves. In contrast to the related species, aecia develop on Allium and similar monocots. In Europe, it is less damaging than M. larici-populina.
The different Melampsora species causing poplar rust can be distinguished by the morphology of the urediniospores and paraphyses, as well as their DNA structure (EPPO Bulletin, 2009).