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Fusarium avenaceum (Fr. 1832) Sacc. 1886
The fungus is wide-spread, particularly in temperate regions. It causes diseases like head blight, scab, root rots or damping-off on many different crops, as well as storage diseases on fruits. A common disease is crown rot or head blight (scab) of cereals like barley and wheat. The symptoms are similar to those cause by other Fusarium species like Fusarium graminearum. The fungus produces the toxin moniliformin which can contaminate the grain. It forms sporodochia mainly with macroconidia. These disperse through infected seeds or rain splashes. The fungus is also often soil-borne.
Macroconidia are spindle-shaped about 40-80 x 4 µm in size with 4-7 (usually 5) septa. Microconidia are rare, 10-40 x 3-4 µm large with 1-3 septa. Chlamydospores are usually not produced. Gibberella avenaceae forms dark purple, spherical perithecia, approximately 100-250 µm in diameter. Asci are club-shaped 60-100 x 5-10 µm large and ascospores elliptical, usually with 1 septum and a size of 13-17 x 4-5 µm.
Gibberella avenacea (teleomorph synonym)
For a review on the fungus in leguminous crops see Hwang et al., 2014