Florida Entomologist (2004) 87, 268-273

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H.E. Trujillo, B. Arias, J.M. Guerrero, P. Hernandez, A. Bellotti and J.E. Peñab (2004)
Survey of parasitoids of whiteflies (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in cassava growing regions of Colombia and Ecuador
Florida Entomologist 87 (3), 268-273
Abstract: A survey for parasitoids of the whiteflies, Bemisia tuberculata Bondar, Trialeurodes variabilis Quantaince, T. vaporariorum (Westwood), Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar, Tetraleurodes sp., Aleuroglandulus malangae Russell and Aleurodicus sp., was conducted in 6 cassava growing regions of Colombia and Ecuador. In Colombia, the degree of infestation was predominantly high (>29 whiteflies/cm2) for A. socialis, B. tuberculata and T. variabilis in all cassava growing regions. In Ecuador, levels of infestations were high for Aleurodicus sp., A. socialis, B. tuberculata, Tetraleurodes sp. in the coastal region, and for T. vaporariorum in the Highlands. The parasitoid fauna of the whiteflies appeared to be more diverse in Colombia than in Ecuador. Eleven species of parasitoids representing 5 genera, 4 families and two superfamilies, as well as 1 hyperparasitoid, were collected from the cassava growing regions of Colombia and 4 species were collected from Ecuador. The parasitoids, Amitus macgowni Evans and Castillo, Encarsia sp., E. hispida De Santis, E. pergandiella Howard, E. bellottii Evans and Castillo, E. luteola group, E. sophia (Girault and Dodd), E. strenua group, Eretmocerus sp., Metaphycus sp. and Euderomphale sp., were collected. There were notable differences in parasitism among the different geographic regions and whitefly species. In general, Eretmocerus was the dominant genus in Colombia and Ecuador, followed by Encarsia sp. We found A. macgowni in regions characterized by high temperatures and bimodal rainfall. Percent parasitism per region surveyed ranged from 3 to 25% in Colombia and from 12 to 21% in Ecuador.

Se efectuó un estudio de reconocimiento de parasitoides de las moscas blancas Bemisia tuberculata Bondar, Trialeurodes variabilis Quantaince, T. vaporariorum (Westwood), Aleurotrachelus socialis Bondar, Tetraleurodes sp., Aleuroglandulus malangae Russell y Aleurodicus sp. en regiones productoras de yuca de Colombia y Ecuador. En Colombia, los niveles de infestación fueron altos (>29 moscas blancas/cm2), particularmente para A. socialis, B. tuberculata y T. variabilis y en el Ecuador para Aleurodicus sp., A. socialis, B. tuberculata, Tetraleurodes sp., en la región de la costa y T. vaporariorum en la región de la sierra. Aparentemente, la fauna de parasitoides fué mas diversa en Colombia que en Ecuador. Se colectaron 11 especies de parasitoides, los cuales representan 5 géneros, 4 familias y dos superfamilias en Colombia y 4 especies de parasitoides en Ecuador. Los parasitoides fueron Amitus macgowni Evans y Castillo, Encarsia sp., E. hispida De Santis, E. pergandiella Howard, E. bellottii Evans y Castillo, grupo E. luteola, E. sophia (Girault and Dodd), grupo E. strenua, Eretmocerus sp., Metaphycus sp. y Euderomphale sp. Hubo diferencias en parasitismo entre las diferentes regions geograficas y especies de mosca blanca. En general, Eretmocerus fué el género que predominó en Colombia y Ecuador, seguido por Encarsia. A. macgowni fué encontrado en diferentes regions geograficas caracterizadas por temperatures altas y dos epocas con alta precipitación. El promedio de parasitismo por region fluctuó entre 3 a 25% en Colombia y entre 12 al 21% en Ecuador.
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Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
surveys/distribution/isolation


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Trialeurodes vaporariorum Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Ecuador (continental)
Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Ecuador (continental)
Trialeurodes variabilis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Bemisia tuberculata Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia pergandiella (parasitoid) Trialeurodes variabilis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia pergandiella (parasitoid) Bemisia tuberculata Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia sophia (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia sophia (parasitoid) Trialeurodes variabilis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia sophia (parasitoid) Bemisia tuberculata Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia bellottii (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Amitus macgowni (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Amitus macgowni (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Ecuador (continental)
Encarsia hispida (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Encarsia hispida (parasitoid) Trialeurodes variabilis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Signiphora aleyrodis (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia
Signiphora aleyrodis (parasitoid) Aleurotrachelus socialis Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Ecuador (continental)
Signiphora aleyrodis (parasitoid) Bemisia tuberculata Cassava (Manihot esculenta) Colombia