Echinochloa crus-galli (weed)
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Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. - (barnyardgrass)
The grass is a widespread weed in temperate and subtropical regions which can be problematic in many crops, e.g. in cereals, soybeans or cotton. It is very competitive. If, for example, the ratio rice to barnyard is 10:1, the rice biomass is reduced by 75% and the yield by 50%.
E. crus-galli is an annual plant which can grow up to 1 m in height and prefers moist and nitrogen-rich soils. The leaves are 1-2 cm wide and do not have a ligula. The lower leaves are often reddish. The flower-head has about 10 racemes and is usually about 10 cm long. One plant may produce up to 40,000 seeds in one year. The seeds survive 3 or more years and germinate rapidly under warm conditions. Common control methods are soil preparation and the use of herbicides, but herbicide resistance has become common.
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For details see the respective page in Wikipedia.