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Cytospora mali Grove 1935 - (apple Valsa canker)
This fungus is a common pathogen of apple and pear trees in eastern Asia, causing canker and dieback diseases. The main symptoms are bark cankers on trunks and branches which are dry and sunken, with discolourations of the underlying phloem and xylem wood. The disease incidence often reaches 50% and the infections can lead to tree death. The fungus usually enters the trees through wounds like fruit scars, pruning wounds, or frost injuries.
After some time, small dark or black pustules emerge through the bark around the canker. These pycnidia or conidiomata produce asexual conidia (pycnospores), typically around 5-8 x 1-1.5 µm large. Black, spherical sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) which produce ascospores have been also described.