Applied Entomology and Zoology (2014) 49, 363-373
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Lek dynamics and cues evoking mating behavior in tephritid flies infesting soft fruits: implications for behavior-based control tools
Applied Entomology and Zoology 49 (3), 363-373
Abstract: Soft fruits are cultivated in many parts of the world and are heavily attacked by a huge range of arthropod pests, including many Tephritidae flies. Soft fruits are consumed by a broad array of consumers, including children, pregnant women and elderly people; thus, high safety levels are required to ensure their adequate protection. On this basis, ecofriendly control tools against Tephritids Infesting Soft Fruits (TISF) are urgently needed. Despite extensive research carried out on Tephritidae behavioral ecology, little is known about lek dynamics and cues evoking mating behavior in TISF. Here we provide a focused look at this issue, reviewing the current knowledge about sexual communication in TISF. First, we examine pre-courtship lek dynamics and the role of male-male aggression in TISF. Second, we review knowledge about mating behavior sequences, with special reference to chemical (mainly sex pheromones) and physical cues (both vibrational and visual) guiding mate choice dynamics. Third, current and potential Integrated Pest Management applications aimed at area-wide control of TISF are outlined, with special reference to improvement of monitoring, the sterile insect technique, and "lure and kill" tools, including the male annihilation technique based on the sprayable specialized pheromone and lure application technology.
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