Tomato yellow leaf curl virus

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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infected (left) and healthy (right) tomato leaves (click on image to enlarge it)
Source: Central Science Laboratory, Harpenden Archive - IPM Images

Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)

The virus is the main species of a complex of genetically different begomoviruses. These cause serious diseases of tomatoes and other crops in tropical and subtropical regions. The symptoms are usually yellow chlorosis on leaf margins, reduced leaf size, upward leaf curling and severe stunting. The diseases result in high yield reductions, often total crop losses. The viruses infect a variety of alternate hosts including crops like beans or pepper as well as weed hosts. The diseases are transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Management involves control of the vector, sanitation (removing infected plants) and resistant cultivars.

The virus has typical geminate particles, about 20 x 30 nm in size. The genome consists of one single-stranded DNA molecule with more than 2,700 nucleotides and 6 open reading frames.

Vernacular names
• Deutsch: Tomaten-Gelbblattkräuselvirus
• English: Tomato yellow leaf curl virus
TYLCV
• Español: virus de la hoja enrollada amarilla del tomate
• Français: feuilles jaunes en cuillère de la tomate
virus de la frisolée jaune de la tomate

A number of related viruses, the Tomato yellow leaf curl viruses have been described. They are characterized by their host plants, transmission through whiteflies and structire of the DNA genome. The variety 'Israel' (previously TYLCV-Is) is considered to be the typical form for this group.

Synonyms:
Tomato yellow leaf curl Gezira virus (TYLCGV)
Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel