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Ramularia collo-cygni B. Sutton & J.M. Waller (1988) - (Ramularia leaf spot)
This fungus is wide-spread and causes a leaf spot disease on barley. It can also infect a few other grass species. It is seed-borne, but infections are initiated also by conidia landing on the leaf surface which enter via the stomata. Small brown spots with a chlorotic halo develop. These enlarge, resulting in larger necrotic areas and in significant yield losses, up to 70% in extreme cases.
The fungus is often present in the host plant as an asymptomatic endophyte and then becomes a necrotrophic pathogen. The species name refers to the conidiophores which have a distinctive swan-neck structure (in latin: collum = neck, cygnus = swan). They emerge from the epidermis and release the conidia.
For a review see Havis et al., 2015