Plant Pathology (2017) 66, 792-804

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T. Corcobado, J.J. Miranda-Torres, J. Martín-García, T. Jung and A. Solla (2017)
Early survival of Quercus ilex subspecies from different populations after infections and co-infections by multiple Phytophthora species
Plant Pathology 66 (5), 792-804
Abstract: Forests in Europe are threatened by increased diversity of Phytophthora species, but effects on trees of simultaneous infections by Phytophthora and ecological consequences of their coexistence are unknown. This study explored variation in early survival of Quercus ilex to Phytophthora infections and assessed interactions between Phytophthora species when trees were co-infected. Three Phytophthora species (P. cinnamomi, P. gonapodyides and P. quercina), seeds from 16 populations of Q. ilex (ballota and ilex subspecies) and two infection times were used as sources of variation in two experiments. The influence of Phytophthora species, Q. ilex subspecies and populations on plant germination and survival were analysed using generalized linear mixed models and survival analysis techniques. Germination rates were not influenced by Phytophthora spp. (P = 0.194) but by the subspecies and populations of Q. ilex (P < 0.001). In Phytophthora-infested soils, Q. ilex subsp. ilex germinated at higher rates than Q. ilex subsp. ballota. Plant survival was strongly influenced by Phytophthora species (P < 0.001), not by the subspecies and populations of Q. ilex. Seedling mortality was reduced and delayed if a less virulent Phytophthora species infected plants prior to infection by a more virulent Phytophthora species. The results help to explain oak decline syndrome and the lack of natural and artificial regeneration of Q. ilex forests. Lack of interspecific variability of early survival to Phytophthora spp. discourages direct sowing for artificial reforestation programmes. Large, thick seeds, giving plants rapid growth, are advantageous traits when soils are infested with Phytophthora spp.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Alejandro Solla, Thomas Jung, Jorge Martín-García

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
general biology - morphology - evolution

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Phytophthora cinnamomi Oak (Quercus)
Phytophthora quercina Oak (Quercus)
Phytophthora gonapodyides Oak (Quercus)