Deladenus siricidicola (entomopathogen)
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Deladenus siricidicola (entomopathogen) Bedding, 1968
This nematode has been used against the invasive wood wasp Sirex noctilio. The nematode has two morphologically different forms and development cycles, one in the pine wood and a separate one in the wasp. In the wood it feeds on Amylostereum areolatum, the symbiotic fungus introduced into pine trees by S. noctilio. The nematode lays eggs and either repeats its life cycle in the tree or colonize S. noctilio larvae developing in the pine wood. In the pine tree, the nematode has a length of about 2 mm and can pass through 20-30 generations per year.
Only fertilised female nematodes invade the wasp larvae. During this parasitic cycle the nematode grows to a form much bigger than the fungus feeding form and releases juveniles into the insect. The juveniles of this cycle invade the reproductive organs of the developing wasp. Female wasps are sterilized by the nematode but still lay eggs (each filled with about 200 juvenile nematodes) and transfer the nematode to new trees.
The nematode has been released in several countries against S. noctilio. Releases in Australia have been very successful. In Argentina, releases (2001-2006) have not managed to slow the spread of the pest (Corley et al. 2014). In North America, the S. noctilio population introduced already contained a strain of D. siricidicola. However, this is a non-sterilizing strain. Additional releases have been done in the U.S. from 2007-2009.