Clavibacter michiganensis

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symptoms of Clavibacter michiganensis infection on tomato (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): F. Christopher Peritore-Galve et al.
Source: Plant Disease (2021) vo. 105 (6), art. 1732

Clavibacter michiganensis (Smith 1910) Davis et al. 1984

This bacterium is wide-spread, Gram-positive, non-sporulating and causes several important crop diseases, mainly in temperate areas. The cells are rod-like and about 0.5-1.0 µm long. It spreads through small wounds and is easily transmitted through farming tools or seeds. It invades the xylem vessels of the host plant, causing wilts, cankers and rots.

C. michiganensis survives for several months in plant residues or seeds. Management methods include the use of uninfected seeds or plant materials and chemical control. Several subspecies of this bacterium have been described which cause diseases on specific crops. The two most important ones are:

Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Smith) Davis et al. causes bacterial canker of tomatoes which is characterized by wilting and canker lesions on the stem. Other symptoms are clearly defined brown leaf spots or leaf curling. Fruits may have "bird's eye spots" which are raised areas with a dark centre and a white halo. Plants may survive but yield will be reduced. Latent infections are also common. This subspecies has quarantine status in some countries. For a review on the identification and biology of this form see the EPPO Bulletin (2016).

Vernacular names
• Deutsch: Bakterielle Tomatenwelke
• English: tomato bacterial canker
bacterial canker of tomato
bacterial wilt of alfalfa
alfalfa bacterial wilt
• Español: marchitez bacteriana
• Français: chancre bactérien

Other subspecies are:
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. capsici see Clavibacter capsici
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. insidiosus (McCulloch) Davis et al. - causes alfalfa bacterial wilt
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis see Clavibacter nebraskensis
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. sepedonicus see Clavibacter sepedonicus
Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. tesselarius - causes leaf spots in wheat.

Corynebacterium michiganense