Bretziella fagacearum

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Bretziella fagacearum (= Ceratocystis fagacearum) symptoms on Quercus velutina leaves (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): C.E. Seliskar
Source: IPM Images

Bretziella fagacearum (Bretz) Z.W. de Beer, Marinc., T.A. Duong & M.J. Wingf. 2017

The fungus causes oak wilt in some parts of North America and is considered a major threat to Europe. It infects the outermost xylem of the trees and restricts the flow of water. Red oak (Quercus rubra) and related oak species are particularly susceptible and the disease often ends in tree death. Symptoms start at the tree top and at the tips of the branches and the leaves. The leaves turn brown (bronzing), drop and the symptoms spread quickly throughout the crown.

Dying oaks produce conidia and ascospores in sporulating mats on the bark. Conidia are 1-celled, cylindrical and about 5-20 µm long. Ascospores are ellipsoid with a size of 3 x 5-10 µm. Sap beetles like Colopterus and other insects are believed to be involved in the spread of the fungus (e.g. Hayslett et al. 2008).

Vernacular names
• Deutsch: Nordamerikanische Eichenwelke
• English: oak wilt
• Français: flétrissure du chêne

Synonyms:
Ceratocystis fagacearum
Chalara quercina
Endoconidiophora fagacearum
Thielaviopsis quercina