Phytopathology (2016) 106, 752-761

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Yazmín Rivera, Catalina Salgado-Salazar, Thomas J. Gulya and Jo Anne Crouch (2016)
Newly emerged populations of Plasmopara halstedii infecting Rudbeckia exhibit unique genotypic profiles and are distinct from sunflower-infecting strains
Phytopathology 106 (7), 752-761
Abstract: The oomycete Plasmopara halstedii emerged at the onset of the 21st century as a destructive new pathogen causing downy mildew disease of ornamental Rudbeckia fulgida (rudbeckia) in the United States. The pathogen is also a significant global problem of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and is widely regarded as the cause of downy mildew affecting 35 Asteraceae genera. To determine whether rudbeckia and sunflower downy mildew are caused by the same genotypes, population genetic and phylogenetic analyses were performed. A draft genome assembly of a P. halstedii isolate from sunflower was generated and used to design 15 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. SSRs and two sequenced phylogenetic markers measured differentiation between 232 P. halstedii samples collected from 1883 to 2014. Samples clustered into two main groups, corresponding to host origin. Sunflower-derived samples separated into eight admixed subclusters, and rudbeckia-derived samples further separated into three subclusters. Pre-epidemic rudbeckia samples clustered separately from modern strains. Despite the observed genetic distinction based on host origin, P. halstedii from rudbeckia could infect sunflower, and exhibited the virulence phenotype of race 734. These data indicate that the newly emergent pathogen populations infecting commercial rudbeckia are a different species from sunflower-infecting strains, notwithstanding cross-infectivity, and genetically distinct from pre-epidemic populations infecting native rudbeckia hosts.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Thomas J. Gulya

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
general biology - morphology - evolution
molecular biology - genes

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Plasmopara halstedii Sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Plasmopara halstedii Rudbeckia (crop)