Phytopathology (2015) 105, 638-645

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Dylan P.G. Short, German Sandoya, Gary E. Vallad, Steven T. Koike, Chang-Lin Xiao, Bo-Ming Wu, Suraj Gurung, Ryan J. Hayes and Krishna V. Subbarao (2015)
Dynamics of Verticillium species microsclerotia in field soils in response to fumigation, cropping patterns, and flooding
Phytopathology 105 (5), 638-645
Abstract: Verticillium dahliae is a soilborne, economically significant fungal plant pathogen that persists in the soil for up to 14 years as melanized microsclerotia (ms). Similarly, V. longisporum is a very significant production constraint on members of the family Brassicaceae. Management of Verticillium wilt has relied on methods that reduce ms below crop-specific thresholds at which little or no disease develops. Methyl bromide, a broad-spectrum biocide, has been used as a preplant soil fumigant for over 50 years to reduce V. dahliae ms. However, reductions in the number of ms in the vertical and horizontal soil profiles and the rate at which soil recolonization occurs has not been studied. The dynamics of ms in soil before and after methyl bromide + chloropicrin fumigation were followed over 3 years in six 8-by-8-m sites in two fields. In separate fields, the dynamics of ms in the 60-cm-deep vertical soil profile pre- and postfumigation with methyl bromide + chloropicrin followed by various cropping patterns were studied over 4 years. Finally, ms densities were assessed in six 8-by-8-m sites in a separate field prior to and following a natural 6-week flood. Methyl bromide + chloripicrin significantly reduced but did not eliminate V. dahliae ms in either the vertical or horizontal soil profiles. In field studies, increases in ms were highly dependent upon the crop rotation pattern followed postfumigation. In the vertical soil profile, densities of ms were highest in the top 5 to 20 cm of soil but were consistently detected at 60-cm depths. Six weeks of natural flooding significantly reduced (on average, approximately 65% in the total viable counts of ms) but did not eliminate viable ms of V. longisporum.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Krishna V. Subbarao, Steven T. Koike, Gary E. Vallad, Germán V. Sandoya, Bo Ming Wu, Chang L. Xiao

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
population dynamics/ epidemiology
control - general

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Verticillium dahliae
Verticillium longisporum