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Phaeomoniella chlamydospora (W. Gams, Crous, M.J. Wingf. & Mugnai) Crous & W. Gams 2000 - (Petri disease of grapevine)
The fungus causes a vascular disease of grapevine (tracheomycosis) which results in stunting, dieback and wilting. In longitudinal sections, the grapevine trunk shows black streaks. Later a white rot develops in the centre of the trunk, bordered by a thick brown-red area. Decline in young vines is called Petri disease characterized by dark exudates oozing from xylem vessels. Other symptoms like tiger-stripes on the leaves, necrosis, black spots and a hard central brown discoloration of the wood can depend on co-occurrence of P. chlamydospora with other fungal pathogens. Some of these symptoms have been described as "esca", a disease also caused by other fungi like Phaeoacremonium minimum and both fungi are often found together in the same area.
P. chlamydospora is wide-spread in Europe, the Americas and Australia. The fungus is mainly transmitted during grafting. Spores can be trapped in vineyards. Liquid lime sulfur has been shown to be effective in killing the spores inside the pycnidia. Conidia are elongated and 3-4 x 1-1½ µm large.