Pepper mild mottle virus
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Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV)
This virus is widely distributed and infects Capsicum crops. The symptoms include mild yellowing of the leaves, stunting, and small malformed fruits which are mottled. Yield losses can be severe. Management has been mainly achieve through the use of resistant cultivars, but resistant breaking strains have been reported (e.g. see Bera et. al., 2017).
Transmission through seeds has been reported to range around 20 and 30%. It can be also transmitted mechanically. The particles are rod-shaped, about 312 x 18 nm in size, and stable, surviving in crop debris, soil and seeds.