Journal of Chemical Ecology (2014) 40, 560-568

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Anne C. Jones, Donald E. Mullins, Tappey H. Jones and Scott M. Salom (2014)
Characterization of physical and chemical defenses in the hemlock woolly adelgid
Journal of Chemical Ecology 40 (6), 560-568
Abstract: The invasive hemlock woolly adelgid (Adelges tsugae Annand, Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Adelgidae) causes significant mortality to eastern and Carolina hemlock (Tsuga canadensis Carrière and T. caroliniana Engelmann, respectively) throughout the eastern United States. Adelges tsugae produces vast quantities of a wax covering that surrounds most of the instars as well as the adult and eggs. Using direct probe EI mass spectrometry, this wax covering was characterized as a diketoester wax, 17-oxohexatriacontanyl 11-oxotriacontanoate, and accounted for ≈ 42 % of A. tsugae total biomass. The presence of the anthraquinone, chrysophanol, and its precursor anthrone, chrysarobin, in A. tsugae has only been briefly described. Further study confirmed these compounds in all A. tsugae life stages. Additionally, several predatory beetles in use or under consideration as biological control agents for this species appear to ingest and excrete these compounds when feeding on A. tsugae. The production of both a physical and a chemical defense may represent a significant energy investment by A. tsugae.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Scott M. Salom

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
general biology - morphology - evolution
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Adelges tsugae Hemlock (Tsuga) U.S.A. (NE)