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Ixodes frontalis (Panzer, 1798) - (passerine tick)
This tick is found in Europe, northern Africa and parts of Asia. It parasitises mainly birds and has been often associated with a disease of birds called "tick-related syndrome". This syndrome involves previously healthy birds becoming acutely depressed or dying, with a subcutaneous haemorrhage on the head or the neck and a tick nearby. The tick has been also reported to carry Borrelia burgdorferi and other disease agents.
I. frontalis has been mainly reported from bird nests, but has been also collected by flagging. It is similar to Ixodes ricinus and around 3 mm long (unfed females).