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Culicoides chiopterus (Meigen 1830)
The species is found in Europe and breeds in cowdung. It is suspected to be a vector of livestock diseases like the bluetongue virus and the Smallenberg virus. In appearance it is similar to several other Culicoides species like C. obsoletus, C. scoticus and C. dewulfi. The 4 species in this group have overlapping distributions. They show morphological differences (e.g. in the wing pattern or the structure of the male genitalia) but are most reliably differentiated with molecular methods, namely the nucleotide sequence of the COI, ITS-1 and ITS-2 genes.