Cotesia rubecula (parasitoid)
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Cotesia rubecula (parasitoid) (Marshall, 1885)
The species is a solitary endoparasitoid of Pieris rapae and Pieris brassicae. It was introduced into North America in 1988 against the former. It apparently competes with Cotesia glomerata which was released earlier and contributes to the decline of that parasitoid.
The development of the host larvae is arrested in the 3rd or 4th instar. When the larva of the parasitoid has completes its development it emerges from the host and spins a cocoon next to it.