Bipolaris maydis

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Bipolaris maydis A, B) ascomata, C) asci, D) fissitunicate releasing state of asci, E) arrangement of ascospores, F-I) conidiophores, J) secondary sporulation, K-P) conidia, scale bars: A = 300 µm, B = 50 µm, C, E = 20 µm, D, I, J = 10 µm, F-H, K-P = 5 µm (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): D.S. Manamgoda, A.Y. Rossman, L.A. Castlebury, P.W. Crous, H. Madrid, E. Chukeatirote and K.D. Hyde
Source: Studies in Mycology, 2014, 79, p. 255

Bipolaris maydis (Y. Nisik. & C. Miyake 1926) Shoemaker 1959

The fungus is wide-spread in Asia, Africa and North America. It causes southern corn leaf blight in tropical and subtropical areas. Epidemics can develop under warm and moist conditions and crop losses of more than 10% have been reported, like during an epidemic in North America during 1970/71. A new race of B. maydis and a 2nd plant pathogenic fungus were involved in that epidemic (Condon et al., 2018).

The symptoms are elliptical leaf lesions with a tan colour and brown margins. Severe infections might result in ear or cob rot. Infected seeds may then lead to infected seedlings which often die. The fungus overwinters in plant debris and can then also infect seedlings if maize is planted during the following season. Control usually involves the use of resistant cultivars and/or crop rotation. Other hosts can also become infected by B. maydis.

Vernacular names
• Deutsch: Blattfleckenkrankheit des Mais
• English: southern leaf blight of corn
southern leaf blight of maize
southern corn leaf blight
• Español: mancha de la hoja del maíz
• Français: helminthosporiose du maïs

Conidia are curved and spindle-shaped, 70–160 µm long, 15–20 µm wide and pale to golden brown, with 6-12 cells. Ascomata are rarely seen in the field. They are about 300-400 µm in diameter, subglobose and black. The ascospores are filiform, around 200-300 µm long and 7-8 µm wide.

Synonyms:
Cochliobolus heterostrophus
Drechslera maydis
Helminthosporium maydis