Biocontrol Science and Technology (2010) 20, 909-921

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Lawrence A. Lacey, David I. Shapiro-Ilan and Gregory M. Glenn (2010)
Post-application of anti-desiccant agents improves efficacy of entomopathogenic nematodes in formulated host cadavers or aqueous suspension against diapausing codling moth larvae (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Biocontrol Science and Technology 20 (9), 909-921
Abstract: Codling moth (CM), Cydia pomonella (L.) is the most serious pest of apple and other pome fruit worldwide. In temperate climates, diapausing cocooned larvae make up 100% of the population. Control of this stage would reduce or eliminate damage by first generation CM in late spring and early summer. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are good candidates for control of CM in the cryptic habitats where the larvae overwinter. The two predominant limiting factors for EPNs are adequate moisture and temperatures below 15°C. Formulation that maintains moisture and enables survival of EPN infective juveniles (IJs) until they can infect overwintering larvae would significantly improve their utility for protection of apple, pear and walnut. In laboratory studies conducted in moist mulch (consisting of apple and conifer wood), Galleria mellonella (L.) larvae infected with Steinernema carpocapsae (Weiser), S. feltiae (Filipjev), or Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar and coated with starch and clay, produced mean mortalities of 42, 88, and 24%, respectively in CM larvae. Mulched field plots treated with formulated S. carpocapsae- or S. feltiae-infected G. mellonella larvae, then followed by an application of wood flour foam as an anti-desiccant, resulted in 56 and 86% mortality, respectively. Comparative tests of aqueous suspensions of S. carpocapsae IJs applied to cardboard bands on apple tree trunks followed by water, fire retardant gel or foam resulted in 11, 35, and 85% respective mortalities. Identical tests with S. feltiae resulted in 20, 19, and 97% respective mortalities. Our research with cadaver formulations of EPNs in mulch and aqueous suspensions on tree trunks combined with anti-desiccant agents, demonstrated significant improvement in larvicidal activity for diapausing cocooned CM larvae.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Lawrence A. Lacey, David I. Shapiro-Ilan

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
formulation/storage of bioagents

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Steinernema carpocapsae/Xenorhabdus nematophila (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Steinernema feltiae/Xenorhabdus bovienii (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora/Photorhabdus (entomopathogen) Cydia pomonella Apple (Malus)