Australian Journal of Agricultural Research (2001) 52, 397-413
L. J. Latham and R. A. C. Jones (2001)
Incidence of virus infection in experimental plots, commercial crops, and seed stocks of cool season crop legumes
Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52 (3), 397-413
Abstract: Experimental plots of cool season crop legumes growing at diverse locations in Western Australia were inspected for plants with suspect virus symptoms over 4 growing seasons (1994, 1997, 1998, 1999), and plant samples were tested for infection with alfalfa mosaic (AMV), bean yellow mosaic (BYMV), cucumber mosaic (CMV), and pea seed-borne mosaic (PSbMV) viruses. All 4 viruses were detected in faba bean (Vicia faba); BYMV, CMV, and PSbMV in field pea (Pisum sativum); AMV, CMV, and PSbMV in lentil (Lens culinaris); and AMV and CMV in chickpea (Cicer arietinum). Among minor crop species, AMV, BYMV, and CMV were found in narbon bean (V. narbonensis) and grass pea (Lathyrus sativus); BYMV and CMV in dwarf chickling (L. cicera); BYMV in bitter vetch (V. e r v i l i a ) and L. clymenum; and AMV in fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum). Incidences of individual viruses varied widely from site to site but plot infection sometimes reached 100%. Symptom severity varied widely with virus–crop combination.
In large-scale surveys of commercial crops of field pea and faba bean over 2 (1998, 1999) and 3 (1994, 1998, 1999) growing seasons, respectively, randomly collected samples from each crop were tested for presence of AMV, BYMV, CMV, and PSbMV. In 1999 they were also tested for beet western yellows virus (BWYV). All 5 viruses were detected in both species. BWYV was found in 35% of faba bean and 56% of the field pea crops sampled in 1999, with incidences of infection in individual crops up to 40% and 49%, respectively. PSbMV was found in 42% and BYMV in 18% of field pea crops in 1999. In individual crops, highest infection incidences of BYMV and PSbMV detected were 31% for BYMV in faba bean in 1998 and 9% for PSbMV in field pea in 1999. CMV and AMV incidences in both species never exceeded 7% of crops or 4% of plants within individual crops. Infection by 2 different viruses within individual crops was common, even 3 were sometimes found. Cultivars infected with most viruses were Fiesta and Fiord for faba bean, and Dundale, Laura, and Magnet for field pea. BYMV was detected in the crop tested of dwarf chickling. In tests on seed samples from Western Australia of 30 commercial seed stocks of field pea, 11 of faba bean, and 50 of chickpea, PSbMV was detected in 11, 1, and 1, respectively; CMV in 1, 1, and 3; BYMV in 3, 1, and 0; and AMV in 0, 0, and 1. This appears to be the first record of seed transmission of CMV in pea and faba bean. Seed samples from Victoria were also found to contain viruses: PSbMV in pea and AMV in lentil.
Widespread infection with viruses in evaluation plots and commercial crops of cool season crop legumes is a cause for concern, especially where individual crop incidences are high and 2 or more viruses are present. Sowing of infected seed stocks leads to introduction of randomly dispersed sources of virus infection within the crop sown, resulting in spread of infection and yield losses. Appropriate control measures are discussed.
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Database assignments for author(s): Roger A.C. Jones
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