Applied Entomology and Zoology (2020) 55, 55-64

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Tomoko Katte, Keng Hong Tan, Zhi-Hui Su, Hajime Ono and Ritsuo Nishida (2020)
Floral fragrances in two closely related fruit fly orchids, Bulbophyllum hortorum and B. macranthoides (Orchidaceae): assortments of phenylbutanoids to attract tephritid fruit fly males
Applied Entomology and Zoology 55 (1), 55-64
Abstract: Floral chemical components are important cues used by plants to attract pollinators. One outstanding case is "fruit fly orchids" in the genus of Bulbophyllum to attract their pollinators by releasing characteristic fragrances. Dacini fruit flies are main or exclusive pollinators which are strongly attracted to certain natural chemicals, either methyl eugenol (ME: a phenylpropanoid) or raspberry ketone (RK: a phenylbutanoid). Furthermore, zingerone (ZN: a phenylbutanoid) has been characterized as the attractant for both ME- and RK-sensitive fruit fly species. In the present study, we examined chemical profiles of two closely related Bulbophyllum orchids—B. hortorum, and B. macranthoides subsp. tollenoniferum—distributed in Papua New Guinea and the Southeast Asian countries, respectively. We first observed that RK-sensitive flies were attracted to these orchids by ex situ cultivation in Penang, Malaysia. These Bulbophyllum orchids contained RK and/or ZN as their main floral components. Other than these attractants, multiple phenylbutanoids including potential attractants for RK-sensitive species were identified from these orchids. Therefore, we examined attractiveness of potential phenylbutanoid attractants to an RK-sensitive melon fly, Zeugodacus cucurbitae, using laboratory-reared flies. Furthermore, we analyzed molecular phylogenetic relationships among phenylpropanoid- or phenylbutanoid-producing orchids to see a relation between chemical profiles and phylogenetic classification in the related species.
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Database assignments for author(s): Hajime Ono, Ritsuo Nishida, Keng-Hong Tan

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Zeugodacus cucurbitae Malaysia