Apple mosaic virus

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symptoms of Apple mosaic virus on a hop leaf (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): David Gent, USDA Agricultural Research Service
Source: IPM Images

Apple mosaic virus (ApMV)

The virus is wide-spread and infects diverse species of Rosales. It is of particular concern on apple, stone fruits and hop. On apple, yield reductions of up to 60% have been reported. The symptoms include light spots on the leaves of apple. On some other hosts like hop, it causes yellow ringspot and mosaic leaf symptoms but infections on Rubus are symptomless.

The natural method of spread of the virus is unknown and no transmission through seeds, pollen or vectors has been demonstrated. However, plants can be mechanically infected by sap and it seems to spread mainly during grafting.

The virus particles are quasi-isometric with a single-stranded RNA genome (ssRNA) typical for the Bromoviridae (RNA1 to 3 + RNA4).

For a review see Grimová et al., 2016.