Zaprionus indianus

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Zaprionus indianus (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): Even Dankowicz
Source: BugGuide
Zaprionus indianus distribution, recently invaded areas are green (click on image to enlarge it)
Source: Wikimedia Commons

Zaprionus indianus Gupta, 1970 - (African fig fly)

This fly is native to Africa, Asia and southern Europe. It has been introduced into South America (first record in 1999), possibly through infested fruits. It has spread quickly to various countries and regions in America (first record from Florida in 2005 and from Mexico in 2006). Z. indianus breeds in various types of fruits, but mainly in overripe, damaged and fallen fruits. It disperses through the transport of contaminated fruits.

While undamaged and unripe fruits are usually not infested, some fruits are attacked while still on the tree like figs, longan and guava. On figs, the fly will lay eggs at the ostiole (an opening at the apex of the fruit) where the larvae can easily enter. Reported yield losses have been low, but in figs, losses of around 50% have been reported from Brazil. In 2012 infested grapes were found in Virginia, U.S.A.

The development from egg to adult lasts around 5-6 weeks and there are several generations per year. The adult is about 3½ mm long, yellowish-brown with 4 distinct longitudinal white stripes bordered by black. Two along head and pronotum and 2 more along the sides of the thorax.

Vernacular names
• English: African fig fly
• Español: mosca Africana de la higuera
• Português: mosca-africana-do-figo

Zaprionus paravittiger

For a review see Pfeiffer et al. (2019)