Insects (2021) 12 (5 - 408)

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Francesca Scolari, Federica Valerio, Giovanni Benelli, Nikos T. Papadopoulos and Lucie Vanícková (2021)
Tephritid fruit fly semiochemicals: Current knowledge and future perspectives
Insects 12 (5 - 408)
Abstract: The Dipteran family Tephritidae (true fruit flies) comprises more than 5000 species classified in 500 genera distributed worldwide. Tephritidae include devastating agricultural pests and highly invasive species whose spread is currently facilitated by globalization, international trade and human mobility. The ability to identify and exploit a wide range of host plants for oviposition, as well as effective and diversified reproductive strategies, are among the key features supporting tephritid biological success. Intraspecific communication involves the exchange of a complex set of sensory cues that are species- and sex-specific. Chemical signals, which are standing out in tephritid communication, comprise long-distance pheromones emitted by one or both sexes, cuticular hydrocarbons with limited volatility deposited on the surrounding substrate or on the insect body regulating medium- to short-distance communication, and host-marking compounds deposited on the fruit after oviposition. In this review, the current knowledge on tephritid chemical communication was analysed with a special emphasis on fruit fly pest species belonging to the Anastrepha, Bactrocera, Ceratitis, Rhagoletis and Zeugodacus genera. The multidisciplinary approaches adopted for characterising tephritid semiochemicals, and the real-world applications and challenges for Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and biological control strategies are critically discussed. Future perspectives for targeted research on fruit fly chemical communication are highlighted.
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