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Epirrita autumnata (Borkhausen) - (autumnal moth)
The moth is an important pest of birch in northern Europe, attacking mainly mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii). Serious outbreaks have been recorded every 9-10 years with natural enemies apparently playing a key role in regulating the outbreaks. Rapid-induced resistance of the host trees is also important.