Ecology and Evolution (2014) 4, 3642-3661

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Irene Barnes, Michael J. Wingfield, Ignazio Carbone, Thomas Kirisits and Brenda D. Wingfield (2014)
Population structure and diversity of an invasive pine needle pathogen reflects anthropogenic activity
Ecology and Evolution 4 (18), 3642-3661
Abstract: Dothistroma septosporum is a haploid fungal pathogen that causes a serious needle blight disease of pines, particularly as an invasive alien species on Pinus radiata in the Southern Hemisphere. During the course of the last two decades, the pathogen has also incited unexpected epidemics on native and non-native pine hosts in the Northern Hemisphere. Although the biology and ecology of the pathogen has been well documented, there is a distinct lack of knowledge regarding its movement or genetic diversity in many of the countries where it is found. In this study we determined the global population diversity and structure of 458 isolates of D. septosporum from 14 countries on six continents using microsatellite markers. Populations of the pathogen in the Northern Hemisphere, where pines are native, displayed high genetic diversities and included both mating types. Most of the populations from Europe showed evidence for random mating, little population differentiation and gene flow between countries. Populations in North America (USA) and Asia (Bhutan) were genetically distinct but migration between these continents and Europe was evident. In the Southern Hemisphere, the population structure and diversity of D. septosporum reflected the anthropogenic history of the introduction and establishment of plantation forestry, particularly with Pinus radiata. Three introductory lineages in the Southern Hemisphere were observed. Countries in Africa, that have had the longest history of pine introductions, displayed the greatest diversity in the pathogen population, indicating multiple introductions. More recent introductions have occurred separately in South America and Australasia where the pathogen population is currently reproducing clonally due to the presence of only one mating type.
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Database assignments for author(s): Irene Barnes, Michael J. Wingfield, Brenda D. Wingfield

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
population dynamics/ epidemiology
molecular biology - genes

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Austria
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Czech Republic
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Hungary
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Poland
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Romania
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Slovakia
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Bhutan
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Australia (South+SE)
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) New Zealand
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Kenya
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) South Africa
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Chile (continental)
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) Ecuador (continental)
Dothistroma septosporum Pine (Pinus) U.S.A. (NW)