Annual Review of Phytopathology (2018) 56, 339-360

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N.J. Hawkins and B.A. Fraaije (2018)
Fitness penalties in the evolution of fungicide resistance
Annual Review of Phytopathology 56, 339-360
Abstract: The evolution of resistance poses an ongoing threat to crop protection. Fungicide resistance provides a selective advantage under fungicide selection, but resistance-conferring mutations may also result in fitness penalties, resulting in an evolutionary trade-off. These penalties may result from the functional constraints of an evolving target site or from the resource allocation costs of overexpression or active transport. The extent to which such fitness penalties are present has important implications for resistance management strategies, determining whether resistance persists or declines between treatments, and for resistance risk assessments for new modes of action. Experimental results have proven variable, depending on factors such as temperature, nutrient status, osmotic or oxidative stress, and pathogen life-cycle stage. Functional genetics tools allow pathogen genetic background to be controlled, but this in turn raises the question of epistatic interactions. Combining fitness penalties under various conditions into a field-realistic scenario poses an important future challenge.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
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pesticide resistance of pest

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