Annual Review of Phytopathology (2018) 56, 289-309

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Teresa E. Pawlowska, Maria L. Gaspar, Olga A. Lastovetsky, Stephen J. Mondo, Imperio Real-Ramirez, Evaniya Shakya and Paola Bonfante (2018)
Biology of fungi and their bacterial endosymbionts
Annual Review of Phytopathology 56, 289-309
Abstract: Heritable symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria (EB) are transmitted vertically between host generations, are an important source of evolutionary novelties. A primary example of such symbioses is the eukaryotic cell with its EB-derived organelles. Recent discoveries suggest that endosymbiosis-related innovations can be also found in associations formed by early divergent fungi in the phylum Mucoromycota with heritable EB from two classes, Betaproteobacteria and Mollicutes. These symbioses exemplify novel types of host-symbiont interactions. Studies of these partnerships fuel theoretical models describing mechanisms that stabilize heritable symbioses, control the rate of molecular evolution, and enable the establishment of mutualisms. Lastly, by altering host phenotypes and metabolism, these associations represent an important instrument for probing the basic biology of the Mucoromycota hosts, which remain one of the least explored filamentous fungi.
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