Texas Phoenix palm decline

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Phoenix sylvestris infected by the "Texas Phoenix palm decline" phytoplasma (strain 16SrIV-D) (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): Monica Elliott, University of Florida
Source: IPM IMAGES
Phoenix canariensis palms infected by the "Texas Phoenix palm decline" phytoplasma (click on image to enlarge it)
Author(s): Monica Elliott, University of Florida
Source: IPM IMAGES

Texas Phoenix palm decline phytoplasma (TPPD) - (strain 16SrIV-D)

This phytoplasma has been originally described from Texas but in 2006 was also reported from Florida where it is called lethal bronzing disease. It is related to the coconut lethal yellowing phytoplasma (Candidatus Phytoplasma palmae, strain 16SrIV-A). However, it does not infect coconut palms but mainly palms from the genus Phoenix like the Canary Island date palm (Phoenix canariensis). It has been also shown to infect sabal palm (Sabal palmetto) and the palm Syagrus romanzoffiana. Like the lethal yellowing phytoplasma, it is transmitted by the planthopper Haplaxius crudus.