Soybean dwarf virus
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Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV)
This virus causes a serious disease of soybeans in Japan. It has also spread to most soybean-growing areas in North America. Further, it has been reported to infect various other leguminous crops in other parts of the world.
On soybean, the virus induces dwarfing, yellowing and sterility. In the diseased plants, yield is reduced considerably and oil quality is poor. A 50% incidence of the virus can result into a yield reduction of up to 40%. It is transmitted by aphids in a persistent (circulative) manner. Managing the disease relies on the use of resistant cultivars. The particles are isometric and about 25 nm in diameter. The genome consists of single-stranded and linear RNA, about 5.86 kb large.
Four different strains of the virus have been described, called DP, DS, YP and YS, which can result in differences in the symptoms. Soybeans infected with the dwarfing strain DS have shortened internodes and petioles, as well as and dark, brittle leaves curling downward. The yellowing strain YS causes interveinal chlorosis and thickened, brittle mature leaves. Both strains are transmitted by the foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani. In contrast, the less prevalent strains DP and YP are transmitted by the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum.