Plant Disease (2017) 101, 1692-1720
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Cereal cyst nematodes: A complex and destructive group of Heterodera species
Plant Disease 101 (10), 1692-1720
Abstract: Small grain cereals have served as the basis for staple foods, beverages, and animal feed for thousands of years. Wheat, barley, oats, rye, triticale, rice, and others are rich in calories, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. These cereals supply 20% of the calories consumed by people worldwide and are therefore a primary source of energy for humans and play a vital role in global food and nutrition security. Global production of small grains increased linearly from 1960 to 2005, and then began to decline. Further decline in production is projected to continue through 2050 while global demand for these grains is projected to increase by 1% per annum. Currently, wheat, barley, and oat production exceeds consumption in developed countries, while in developing countries the consumption rate is higher than production. An increasing demand for meat and livestock products is likely to compound the demand for cereals in developing countries. Current production levels and trends will not be sufficient to fulfill the projected global demand generated by increased populations. For wheat, global production will need to be increased by 60% to fulfill the estimated demand in 2050. Until recently, global wheat production increased mostly in response to development of improved cultivars and farming practices and technologies. Production is now limited by biotic and abiotic constraints, including diseases, nematodes, insect pests, weeds, and climate. Among these constraints, plant-parasitic nematodes alone are estimated to reduce production of all world crops by 10%. Cereal cyst nematodes (CCNs) are among the most important nematode pests that limit production of small grain cereals. Heavily invaded young plants are stunted and their lower leaves are often chlorotic, forming pale green patches in the field. Mature plants are also stunted, have a reduced number of tillers, and the roots are shallow and have a "bushy-knotted" appearance. CCNs comprise a number of closely-related species and are found in most regions where cereals are produced.
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Pest and/or beneficial records:
|Heterodera australis||Australia (South+SE)|
|Heterodera australis||Australia (Western)|