Pest Management Science (2018) 74, 627-637

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Yves Carrière, Ben A. Degain, Gopalan C. Unnithan, Virginia S. Harpold, Shannon Heuberger, Xianchun Li and Bruce E. Tabashnik (2018)
Effects of seasonal changes in cotton plants on the evolution of resistance to pyramided cotton producing the Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry1F in Helicoverpa zea
Pest Management Science 74 (3), 627-637
Abstract:
Background
In pests with inherently low susceptibility to Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, seasonal declines in the concentration of Bt toxins in transgenic crops could accelerate evolution of resistance by increasing the dominance of resistance. Here, we evaluated Helicoverpa zea survival on young and old cotton plants that produced the Bt toxins Cry1Ac and Cry1F or did not produce Bt toxins.
Results
Using a strain selected for resistance to Cry1Ac in the laboratory, its parent strain that was not selected in the laboratory, and their F1 progeny, we showed that resistance to Cry1Ac + Cry1F cotton was partially dominant on young and old plants. On Cry1Ac + Cry1F cotton, redundant killing was incomplete on young plants but nearly complete on old plants. No significant fitness costs on non-Bt cotton occurred on young plants, but large recessive costs affected survival on old plants. Simulation models incorporating the empirical data showed that the seasonal changes in fitness could delay resistance to Cry1Ac + Cry1F cotton by inducing low equilibrium frequencies of resistance alleles when refuges are sufficiently large.
Conclusion
Our results suggest that including effects of seasonal changes in fitness of pests on Bt crops and refuge plants can enhance resistance risk assessment and resistance management.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Yves Carriere, Bruce E. Tabashnik, Shannon Heuberger

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium)
Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1A-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium)
Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1F-toxin (entomopathogen) Helicoverpa zea Cotton (Gossypium)