Pest Management Science (2005) 61, 327-330

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Yves Carrière, Christa Ellers-Kirk, Kamlesh Kumar, Shannon Heuberger, Mike Whitlow, Larry Antilla, Timothy J. Dennehy and Bruce E. Tabashnik (2005)
Long-term evaluation of compliance with refuge requirements for Bt cotton
Pest Management Science 61 (4), 327-330
Abstract: The success of the refuge strategy for delaying pest resistance to Bt crops depends on compliance by farmers. However, the accuracy of previous estimates of compliance has been questioned. We have applied a novel approach based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to measure compliance with refuge requirements for Bt cotton in six Arizona regions from 1998 to 2003. Although compliance varied among regions, overall compliance was above 88% in five of six years. With the cooperation of farmers, our approach allows precise and economical assessment of compliance with the refuge strategy.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Yves Carriere, Bruce E. Tabashnik, Shannon Heuberger

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
biocontrol - natural enemies
Research topic(s) for beneficials or antagonists:
resistance/tolerance/defence of host
application technology


Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.


Bacillus thuringiensis genes in crops (entomopathogen) U.S.A. (SW)