Pest Management Science (2003) 59, 949-961

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Yong In Kuk, Ha Il Jung, Oh Do Kwon, Do Jin Lee, Nilda R. Burgos and Ja Ock Guh (2003)
Sulfonylurea herbicide-resistant Monochoria vaginalis in Korean rice culture
Pest Management Science 59 (9), 949-961
Abstract: Nine Monochoria vaginalis Presl accessions from Chonnam province, Korea were tested for resistance to the sulfonylurea herbicide, imazosulfuron, in whole-plant response bioassay. All accessions were confirmed resistant (R) to imazosulfuron. The GR50 (imazosulfuron concentration that reduced shoot dry weight by 50%) values of R accessions were 1112-3172 (accession #9) times higher than that of the standard susceptible (S) accession. Accession #9 exhibited cross-resistance to other sulfonylurea herbicides, bensulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, but not to the imidazolinone herbicides, imazapyr and imazaquin. The R biotype could be controlled by other herbicides with different modes of action, such as mefenacet and pyrazolate, applied to soil at recommended rates. Foliar-applied herbicides, 2,4-D and bentazone, also controlled both the R and S biotypes. Sulfonylurea-based mixtures, except ethoxysulfuron plus fentrazamide, did not control resistant M vaginalis. Rice yield was reduced 70% by resistant M vaginalis that escaped pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus molinate, compared with hand weeding in direct-seeded rice culture. In contrast, rice yield was reduced 44% by resistant M vaginalis that survived the pyrazosulfuron-ethyl plus molinate treatment, compared with pyrazolate plus butachlor in transplanted rice culture. In vitro acetolactate synthase (ALS) activity of the R biotype was 183, 35, 130 and 31 times more resistant to imazosulfuron, bensulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, respectively, than the S biotype. Imidazolinone herbicides, imazapyr and imazaquin had similar effect on in vitro ALS activity of the R and S biotypes. The in vivo ALS activity of the R biotype was also less affected than the S biotype by the sulfonylurea herbicides imazosulfuron and pyrazosulfuron-ethyl. Results of in vitro and in vivo ALS assays indicate that the resistance mechanism of M vaginalis to sulfonylurea herbicides may be due, in part, to an alteration in the target enzyme, ALS. Since the level of resistance in the enzyme assay was much lower than that in the whole-plant assay, other mechanisms of resistance, such as herbicide metabolism, may be involved.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Link to article at publishers website
Database assignments for author(s): Nilda R. Burgos

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
pesticide resistance of pest

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Monochoria vaginalis (weed) Rice (Oryza) Korea-South