Parasites and Vectors (2019) 12 (287) - Status of insecticide

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Kevin Ochieng' Opondo, Musa Jawara, Saihou Cham, Ebrima Jatta, Lamin Jarju, Muhammed Camara, Fatou Sanneh, Pa Modou Gaye, Lamin Jadama, Sainey Ceesay, Ebrima Njie, Benoit Sessinou Assogba, Balla Kandeh and Umberto D'Alessandro (2019)
Status of insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) of The Gambia
Parasites and Vectors 12 (287)
Vector control activities, namely long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS), have contributed significantly to the decreasing malaria burden observed in The Gambia since 2008. Nevertheless, insecticide resistance may threaten such success; it is important to regularly assess the susceptibility of local malaria vectors to available insecticides.
In the transmission seasons of 2016 and 2017, Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) larvae were sampled in or around the nine vector surveillance sentinel sites of the Gambia National Malaria Control Programme (GNMCP) and in a few additional sampling points. Using WHO susceptibility bioassays, female adult mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide-impregnated papers. Molecular identification of sibling species and insecticide resistance molecular markers was done on a subset of 2000 female mosquitoes.
A total of 4666 wild-caught female adult mosquitoes were exposed to either permethrin (n = 665), deltamethrin (n = 744), DDT (n = 1021), bendiocarb (n = 990) or pirimiphos-methyl (n = 630) insecticide-impregnated papers and control papers (n = 616). Among the 2000 anophelines, 1511 (80.7%) were Anopheles arabiensis, 204 (10.9%) Anopheles coluzzii, 75 (4%) Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), and 83 (4.4%) An. gambiae (s.s.) and An. coluzzii hybrids. There was a significant variation in the composition and species distribution by regions and year, P = 0.009. Deltamethrin, permethrin and DDT resistance was found in An. arabiensis, especially in the coastal region, and was mediated by Vgsc-1014F/S mutations (odds ratio = 34, P = 0.014). There was suspected resistance to pirimiphos-methyl (actellic 300CS) in the North Bank Region although only one survivor had the Ace-1-119S mutation.
As no confirmed resistance to bendiocarb and actellic 300CS was detected, the national malaria control programme can continue using these insecticides for IRS. Nevertheless, the detection of Ace-1 119S mutation warrants extensive monitoring. The source of insecticide pressure driving insecticide resistance to pyrethroids and DDT detected at the coastal region should be further investigated in order to properly manage the spread of resistance in The Gambia.
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Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
pesticide resistance of pest

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Anopheles gambiae Gambia
Anopheles arabiensis Gambia
Anopheles coluzzii Gambia