PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases (2017) 11 (7 - e0005653)

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Panayiota Kotsakiozi, Andrea Gloria-Soria, Adalgisa Caccone, Benjamin Evans, Renata Schama, Ademir Jesus Martins and Jeffrey R. Powell (2017)
Tracking the return of Aedes aegypti to Brazil, the major vector of the dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases 11 (7 - e0005653)
Aedes aegypti, commonly known as "the yellow fever mosquito", is of great medical concern today primarily as the major vector of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses, although yellow fever remains a serious health concern in some regions. The history of Ae. aegypti in Brazil is of particular interest because the country was subjected to a well-documented eradication program during 1940s-1950s. After cessation of the campaign, the mosquito quickly re-established in the early 1970s with several dengue outbreaks reported during the last 30 years. Brazil can be considered the country suffering the most from the yellow fever mosquito, given the high number of dengue, chikungunya and Zika cases reported in the country, after having once been declared "free of Ae. aegypti".
Methodology/Principal findings
We used 12 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic structure of Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, genetic variability, genetic affinities with neighboring geographic areas, and the timing of their arrival and spread. This enabled us to reconstruct their recent history and evaluate whether the reappearance in Brazil was the result of re-invasion from neighboring non-eradicated areas or re-emergence from local refugia surviving the eradication program. Our results indicate a genetic break separating the northern and southern Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, with further genetic differentiation within each cluster, especially in southern Brazil.
Based on our results, re-invasions from non-eradicated regions are the most likely scenario for the reappearance of Ae. aegypti in Brazil. While populations in the northern cluster are likely to have descended from Venezuela populations as early as the 1970s, southern populations seem to have derived more recently from northern Brazilian areas. Possible entry points are also revealed within both southern and northern clusters that could inform strategies to control and monitor this important arbovirus vector.
(The abstract is excluded from the Creative Commons licence and has been copied with permission by the publisher.)
Full text of article
Database assignments for author(s): Ademir Jesus Martins

Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
population dynamics/ epidemiology

Pest and/or beneficial records:

Beneficial Pest/Disease/Weed Crop/Product Country Quarant.

Aedes aegypti Brazil (south)
Aedes aegypti Brazil (NW)
Aedes aegypti Brazil (NE)