Molecular Plant Pathology (2020) 21, 291-302
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The translucens group of Xanthomonas translucens: Complicated and important pathogens causing bacterial leaf streak on cereals
Molecular Plant Pathology 21 (3), 291-302
Abstract: Xanthomonas translucens is a group of gram-negative bacteria that can cause important diseases in cereal crops and forage grasses. Different pathovars have been defined according to their host ranges, and molecular and biochemical characteristics. Pathovars have been placed into two major groups: translucens and graminis. The translucens group contains the pathovars causing bacterial leaf streak (BLS) on cereal crops such as wheat, barley, triticale, rye, and oat. In recent years, BLS has re-emerged as a major problem for many wheat- and barley-producing areas worldwide. The biology of the pathogens and the host–pathogen interactions in cereal BLS diseases were poorly understood. However, recent genome sequence data have provided an insight into the bacterial phylogeny and identification and pathogenicity/virulence. Furthermore, identification of sources of resistance to BLS and mapping of the resistance genes have been initiated.
Kingdom Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species X. translucens; translucens group pathovars: undulosa, translucens, cerealis, hordei, and secalis; graminis group pathovars: arrhenatheri, graminis, poae, phlei; newly established pathovar: pistaciae.
X. translucens mainly infects plant species in the Poaceae with the translucens group on cereal crop species and the graminis group on forage grass species. However, some strains have been isolated from, and are able to infect, ornamental asparagus and pistachio trees. Most pathovars have a narrow host range, while a few can infect a broad range of hosts.
The complete genome sequence is available for two X. translucens pv. undulosa strains and one pv. translucens strain. A draft genome sequence is also available for at least one strain from each pathovar. The X. translucens pv. undulosa strain Xt4699 was the first to have its complete genome sequenced, which consists of 4,561,137 bp with total GC content approximately at 68% and 3,528 predicted genes.
Like most xanthomonads, X. translucens utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to deliver a suite of T3SS effectors (T3Es) inside plant cells. Transcription activator-like effectors, a special group of T3Es, have been identified in most of the X. translucens genomes, some of which have been implicated in virulence. Genetic factors determining host range virulence have also been identified.
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