Molecular Plant Pathology (2020) 21, 1007-1019
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Rice black-streaked dwarf virus: From multiparty interactions among plant–virus–vector to intermittent epidemics
Molecular Plant Pathology 21 (8), 1007-1019
Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) (species Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae) is the causal agent of rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which occur in intermittent epidemics in East Asian countries and are responsible for considerable yield losses. Intermittency of epidemics make accurate forecasting and designing of effective management strategies difficult. However, recent insights into host–virus–vector insect interactions are now informing forecasting and disease control measures. Resistance genes are also being identified and mapped.
Symptomatology and host range
RBSDV induces extreme stunting, darkened, and stiff leaves of crops and weeds only in the family Poaceae, including Oryza sativa, Zea mays, and Triticum aestivum. Infected plants produce totally or partially deformed panicles and remain alive through harvest.
Genome and gene function
The nonenveloped virus particles comprise a double-layered capsid, 50-nm core with genomic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), and six proteins. The genome of RBSDV contains 10 segments of dsRNA, named S1 to S10 in decreasing order of molecular weight. Segments 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 encode the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), the major core structural protein, a protein with guanylyltransferase activity, an outer-shell B-spike protein, viral RNA-silencing suppressor, the major capsid protein, and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Each of the segments 5, 7, and 9 encodes two proteins: P5-1, a component of viroplasms; P5-2 of unknown function; nonstructural protein P7-1, involved in forming the structural matrix of tubular structures in infected tissues; P7-2 of unknown function; P9-1, the main component of viroplasms in infected cells and involved in viral replication; and P9-2 of unknown function.
Transmission and epidemiology
RBSDV is transmitted by Laodelphax striatellus in a persistent propagative manner. The vector insect is the only means of virus spread in nature, so its migration and transmission efficiency are obligatory for disease epidemics to develop. Susceptible varieties are widely planted, but efficient transmission by vectors is the primary reason for the epidemics. Cultivation system, pesticide overuse, and climatic conditions also contribute to epidemics by affecting the development of the vector insects and their population dynamics.
In the absence of resistant varieties, integrated disease management aims at disrupting the cycle of virus transmission by the insect vector. Inheritance studies have indicated that resistance is mostly governed by quantitative trait loci or multiple genes. Genetic engineering through RNA-interference and gene-editing strategies are potential approaches for disease control.
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Research topic(s) for pests/diseases/weeds:
Pest and/or beneficial records:
|Laodelphax striatellus||Rice (Oryza)|
|Rice black streaked dwarf virus||Rice (Oryza)|